Writing Annotated Bibliography! Ph.D Class

Recall that we discussed how to write annotated bibliography in class. Well, that was an interesting encounter that provided brief insight on a fresh angle to the course: Technological Advances in Communication.

We used a sample presentation by Cornell University Library entitled “How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography: The Annotated Bibliography” as a guide (http://guides.library.cornell.edu/annotatedbibliography). This is a quick explanation of the concept and process of writing annotated bibliography.

Below is a full text of the sample we used in class written by Cornell University;


An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.


Abstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes. Annotations are descriptive and critical; they may describe the author’s point of view, authority, or clarity and appropriateness of expression.


Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research.

First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.

Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style.

Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that (a) evaluate the authority or background of the author, (b) comment on the intended audience, (c) compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or (d) explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic.

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For guidance in critically appraising and analyzing the sources for your bibliography, see How to Critically Analyze Information Sources. For information on the author’s background and views, ask at the reference desk for help finding appropriate biographical reference materials and book review sources.


Check with your instructor to find out which style is preferred for your class. Online citation guides for both the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA) styles are linked from the Library’s Citation Management page.



The following example uses APA style (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, 2010) for the journal citation:

Waite, L. J., Goldschneider, F. K., & Witsberger, C. (1986). Nonfamily living and the erosion of traditional family orientations among young adults. American Sociological Review, 51, 541-554.

The authors, researchers at the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women and Young Men to test their hypothesis that nonfamily living by young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans, and expectations, moving them away from their belief in traditional sex roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young females, while the effects were fewer in studies of young males. Increasing the time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier study by Williams cited below shows no significant gender differences in sex role attitudes as a result of nonfamily living.

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Take another look at the write-up above and submit your answer as a response to this post. Recall that we said you can submit your answers in batches of not less that 10 bibliographies. We also said 40% of the entire work should be local materials. Deadline for first batch of bibliographies is 10pm on Tuesday, 6th of March. After that, we expect at least 15 new bibliographies submitted every four days in one post. This is to continue until you produce 50 annotated bibliographies on the topic specifically assigned to you.

The Author

Chinenye Nwabueze

He is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Mass Communication, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, COOU, (formerly Anambra State University), Igbariam Campus.


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  1. Genevieve Nwedo-Nzeribe

    The following annotated bibliography from authors who discussed my area of interest, television and telecommunication particularly, information and communication technology, ICT will provide road map for scholars researching into these two branches of communication studies.

    Onu, E. I. (2009). ‘The Challenge of Digital Television Broadcasting in Nigeria’ Makurdi Journal of Communication Research Vol.1.
    Writing on the challenges of digital television broadcasting in Nigeria, Onu highlighted the benefits derivable from shifting to digital broadcasting from the analogue system. He based the study on Diffusion and Technology Determinisms theory propounded by Everret Rogers which encourages the use of communication to transfer technological innovations from development agencies to the clients so as to bring about appreciative change. He limited the study to content analysis, shunning sample survey which could have provided firsthand information from field work. Before arriving at the conclusion that digital television will usher in improved accessibility, sharp picture quality, good and efficient programming and the recommendation that government and other stakeholders to tackle the problems of technical know-how and lack of equipment, the writer should have done more in-depth work that will include field surveys.

    Moore, M. G. et al (2002). ‘Information and Communication Technology in Distance Education’.lit.unesco.org/img/upload/Distance Education.pdf. Newsletter_2_qxd_Distance.
    In this study, Moore took a look at the application of information and communication technology ICTs as resources for teaching. Taking a conceptual view of the topic, it sees Distance Education as a form of educational delivery where the acts of teaching and learning are separated in time and space which technology plays a significant role in enabling delivery. His views are in tandem with Keegan’s article (1980 p.19) which stated that in distance education, the institution teaches, whereas in traditional campus based education, an individual does the teaching. The study is based on the Asynchronous Communication. Theory which encourages communication between individuals or groups independent of time and location.

    Nwachuku, M. A.(1994) ‘Development of Information Technology in Nigeria.’ In E. Drew and F.
    G. Foster (eds.) Information Technology in Selected Countries. Tokyo, United Nations University Press, 102-132.

    This article examines the work of a Central Computer Committee set up by the Nigerian government in the late 1970s to compile national data on computer system. The objectives of this
    Committee included drawing up standards for users, vendors and consultants on computer projects, and the development of inputs towards a national policy on computing. However, the
    Committee’s activities were instead dominated by reviewing applications for computer imports
    and making recommendations to the Ministry of Finance on whether to grant import licenses or

    Kibati, M.(1999). ‘Wireless Local Loop in Developing Countries: Is It Too Soon for Data? The
    Case of Kenya.’ M.S. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    This study is based on research into access to communication services for the low-income, mostly rural, population in Kenya. Therefore, it was set in a situation where there was lack of, or inadequate, information infrastructure. Kibati also investigated current ICTs as well as the projected evolution towards more advanced technologies that are capable of handling broadband data communication. The model conceived ‘determines that CDMA deployments instill flexibility and better evolutionary properties to the network without the burden of extra costs for the operator’. He recommends that ‘the Kenyan government de-link wireless local loop regulation from the regulation of wire based local access’ and ‘allow the immediate private provision of fixed wireless local loop services’. The research was a combination of on-desk research, sensitivity analyses and baseline parameters.

    Lor, P.(1986) ‘Information Dependence in Southern Africa: Global and Sub-regional Perspectives.’ African Journal of Library, Archives and Information Science, Vol. 6, no. 1.
    Lor approaches information dependence – simply defined as undue dependence on foreign
    information sources – from a global perspective with the following sub-divisions:
    •Inadequate production of information in the South.
    •Inadequate North-South flow of information.
    •Dominance of the North-South flow of information.
    •Inadequate South-South flow of information.
    •Lack of indigenous information-handling capacity.
    The author’s thesis is that dependence on foreign sources is an unhealthy situation as it results,
    for example, in an outflow of badly-needed foreign currency and a country may not even receive
    information relevant to local needs. He suggests that Southern African countries should consider
    Parker’s ‘national/regional or reciprocal/communal ‘model, whereby all participants utilize the
    services of one of the others. Hence, a country that is significantly well endowed such as South Africa can take on additional responsibilities towards the other countries, but must ensure that it does not regress into a donor-recipient relationship. The less well-endowed countries must
    also contribute to the relationship by demonstrating a willingness to learn.

    Marcelle, G. M.(2002) ‘Getting Gender into African ICT Policy: A Strategic View.’ In E. M.
    Rathgeber and E. O. Adera (eds.) Gender and the Information Revolution in Africa. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Chapter 3.

    ICT policy is defined here as ‘an integrated set of decisions, guidelines, laws, regulations, and other mechanisms geared to directing and shaping the production, acquisition, and use of ICTs’. This chapter, intended as a guide for policy-makers, includes a look at the current state of national ICT policy-making in Africa, the policy-making apparatus, the challenges and the successes so far – especially in Mozambique, Senegal, Uganda and South Africa, and includes a review of the policy-formulation process in an international context. The author argues that conceptual frameworks, systems of data collection, indicator construction and evaluation methodologies in the ICT policy-making process are still in their rudimentary stages, hence real change in the structure and functioning of the ICT sector out-paces policy intervention. She notes that with the exception of Nigeria, South Africa and some Northern African countries,
    there has been very little research and development capability in ICTs in Africa.
    A number of key actions are suggested for the incorporation of gender considerations into
    national ICT policies:
    •Allocation of ICT development resources to women;
    •Provision and improvement of telecommunications infrastructure;
    •Facilitate and encourage the involvement of women in technological innovation; and
    •Create culturally relevant content.

    Mchombu, K. J. (1999) ‘Designing Women Oriented Information Resource Centres in Africa.’
    Information Development Journal, Vol. 15, no. 4
    The study outlined the challenges faced by African women – specifically those from the low socioeconomic category – in accessing information resource centres. His thesis is that women’s requirements for information and their information-seeking behaviour must be taken into account. He suggests that information resource centres, which are defined as agencies for the creation, collection and delivery of communication of information, are not women-friendly; therefore, there are suggestions on how to design women-friendly resource centres.

    Benton, A. and Hill, S. (2003). ‘The Spoiler Effect?: Designing Social TV Content that Promotes ongoingWOM
    This research paper is designed to study how and when in-program social media signifiers (hashtags) produce social media content creation by viewers. The researcher first defines social TV as the current integration of social media interaction with television programming. The project is designed at: (1) studying the placement of specific tweets on the television screen; (2) to see how in show hashtags elicit viewer discussions and tasks. The research finds that on air tweets increase retweet rate, such that hashtags within the program and increase program related tweets and that social media mentions, in which tweets are content specific and generate more discussion

    Andrejevic, M.(2008) ‘Watching Television Without Pity: The Productivity of Online Fans’ Television and New Media. Vol. 9, no 1: 24-46.
    Through in-depth interviews the author found that television viewers were actively producing online comments, notes and text that directly related to the show either in canon or not, suggesting that what is masked as “enhancing the viewing pleasure” is actually labor designed to assist the producers in increasing their content production. He also cautions readers to not overlook that just because producers are aware of online fan sentiments that it does not automatically shape production, and so certainly not without first satisfying the needs of the producers. This article further expands my research in which I will suggest that f textual content produced online by fan communities is considered labor rather than entertainment, and if this type of fan hood is emerging as a complementary activity of television viewing, then it can be assumed that television viewing is becoming more.

    Quail, C.(2012) ‘Television Goes Online: Myths and Realities in the Contemporary Context’ Global Media Journal Vol. 12 no 20: 1-15
    The author of this article attempts to disavow recent assertions that watching broadcast television will be replaced by online television streaming. First they state that the digital divide alone restricts online television streaming from being mainstream, claiming that most users are college age. Second they criticize the process of users going to online streaming services as more of work than active participation. Lastly they claim that you can’t watch what you want when you want because there exists the same degree of control with online streaming distribution as there is with broadcast distribution. This article will be useful in providing a counterargument towards the assertion that online television will surpass broadcast television.

    1. Nice job. You really took time to do this. You have 10 works here. Waiting for the others.


    Being a paper presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Course MAC 981 (Technological Advances), Department of Mass Communication, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University (COOU), Igbariam for the award of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Mass Communication.

    Lecturer: Dr. Chinenye Nwabueze


    Tony Onyima

    March, 2018


    1. Izuogu, K. C. (2007), “Globalization and Information Technologies:
    Problems and Prospects”, in Nwosu I. E and Soola O. E. (eds),
    Communication in Global, ICTs & Ecosystem Perspectives – Insights
    from Nigeria, Enugu: Precision Publishers Limited.

    The author, a lecturer at the Department of Mass Communication, Abia State University, Uturu, Abia State traced the historical development of the concept of globalization; its problems, prospects and relatedness with Information Communication Technologies (ICTs). He surmised that globalization began with the Trans Atlantic Trade era between 1450-1500, the voyages of Christopher Columbus (1492) and Vasco Da Gama (1498) to the era of free trade when Western countries exported their capitalist tendencies under the guise of trade. Citing some scholarly works, the author restated the position of developing countries that globalization has remained “the unequal yoking of the powerful and mighty North on the one hand, and the economically and technologically disadvantaged South on the other”.
    This unequal relationship, the author submitted, is largely fostered by advances in Information Communication Technologies (ICTs). Unlike the condemnatory position of many scholars from developing countries, the author graciously acknowledged the many advantages of globalization.

    2. Ogunsola, L. A., (2005) ‘Information and Communication
    Technologies and the Effects of Globalization: Twenty-First
    Century “Digital Slavery” for Developing Countries – Myth or
    Realty?’ Electronic Journal of Academic and Special
    Librarianship, Vol. 6, No 1-2, Summer 2005

    The author, a staff of Hezekiah Oluwasanmi Library, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria critically examined the concept of globalization as one of the reasons for the widening of the gap between the poor and the rich nations. He also carefully evaluated the emerging concept of “digital slavery”. After a thorough examination of the wide gap in availability and use of ICTs across the world and the influences ICTs exert on globalization at the expense of developing countries, the author offered suggestions and necessary policies for developing countries to leap-frog the industrialization stage and transform their economies into high value-added information economies that can compete with the advanced countries on the global market.
    With insights from data obtained from multi lateral agencies, the author concluded that ‘digital slavery’ as far as Africa is concerned is a reality. He therefore advised African countries in general, and Nigeria, in particular, to be aware of the implications of globalization, which is largely driven by ICTs; prepare to avoid the most telling consequences and to meet its challenges.

    3. Nwagwu,W. E. (2006) ‘Integrating ICTs into the Globalization of the
    Poor Developing Countries’. Information Development, 2006, Vol.
    22, N0. 3, 167.

    How best would developing countries leverage ICTs to integrate their development agenda with the globalization process? Nwagwu, a lecturer at the University of South Africa, offered some answers in this paper. He identified ICT as a multidimensional technology, which can act as a platform for every community to play some role in the globalizing world. The challenge for communities is therefore to identify how to appropriate the benefits of ICTs according to their levels of development. The author recognized the need for global-scale countervailing policies to establish the true pattern and structure of poverty and ICTs consumption and utilization in the developing countries in order to determine how the ICTs-heavy activities of the rich developing countries can be aligned with the ICTs needs of the poor developing countries. This will help ensure that ICTs are contributing in the development and globalization of the poor countries. The paper recommended strategies that can be adopted to boost the participation of poor developing countries in the globalization process.

    4. Nwodu, L. C (2007), “ICTs, Globalization and Domination of African
    Cultural Values: A Development Communication Perspective”, in
    Nwosu I. E and Soola O. E. (eds), Communication in Global, ICTs &
    Ecosystem Perspectives – Insights from Nigeria, Enugu: Precision
    Publishers Limited.

    The need to preserve African cultural values in the face of Western controlled globalized world of ICTs is the thrust of this paper. The author, a professor at the Department of Mass Communication, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University (COOU), argued that ICTs and the concept of globalization have moved to a point where essential elements of national cultural values especially that of African countries are being fast eroded by Western cultures. Communication technologies are the nervous system of contemporary society, transmitting and distributing sensory, cultural and control information and interconnecting a myriad of interdependent units (Grant, 2002:1). The paper advised development communication experts from developing countries to explore the full benefits of ICTs in protecting and projecting aspects of their cultures that can enhance set development goals. The author contended that it is only through this will Africa not only witness healthy development but remain relevant in the ICT-driven globalized world.

    5. Idemili, S. O., Maama, N. Z. (2007), “Globalization, ICTs, Mass Media
    and Public Interests”, in Nwosu I. E and Soola O. E. (eds),
    Communication in Global, ICTs & Ecosystem Perspectives – Insights
    from Nigeria, Enugu: Precision Publishers Limited.

    With great and grave implications, ICTs are revolutionizing a lot of fields including media. New technologies are opening up and extending the frontiers of media landscape. The authors examined the extent of ICT impact on traditional media practice and its implications for public interests. As a result of these new changes in media practice, new standards in the nature of doing journalism have emerged. Likewise new global audiences for local and alternative media have generated increasing expectations and increasing cost. For public interests to remain in the foreground in the face of this globalizing influence, the authors advised that journalists as custodians of public trust should be able to respond to these changes through training.

    6. Adam, L., and F. Wood (1999) ‘An Investigation of the Impact of
    Information and Communication Technologies in Sub-Saharan
    Africa.’ Journal of Information Science, 25, no. 4 (1999):

    The authors examined the impact of ICTs on users in Africa using the ‘grounded theory’ approach, identifying four main aspects of the impact of ICTs: actual impact; potential impact; constraints; actions centered around users and their reactions. The authors found that understanding ICT users within the context of their application of ICTs is necessary for impact assessment: ‘The constructionist behavior in which individuals, organizations, professionals and groups map their world and situation, and the complex action and interaction between them, imposes the structure of ICT use’ (p. 307). They decided to use a purely qualitative approach to examine the interpretative understanding of users. The respondents were drawn mainly from Ethiopia. The main positive impact of ICTs in most countries was found to be in the area of information systems development. On the other hand, under-use of ICTs was widespread and signaled the need for indigenous capacity building. Adam and Wood concluded with a detailed discussion of their findings and noted areas for further research. The latter include more research on the social impact of ICTs from an interdisciplinary approach, as this would help planners and implementers to design, evaluate and make better use of ICTs.

    7. Blake, C. (1992) ‘The New Communication and Information Technologies
    and African Cultural Renaissance.’ African Journal of Library,
    Archives and Information Science, 2, no. 2 (1992): 93-98.

    What is the impact of new ICTs on ‘African culture’? This is what Blake strove to answer in this paper. He believed that, even though African nations have different attitudes towards cultural regeneration and dissemination, the continent is struggling to get a handle on the complex role and position of culture in order to forge ahead with its development agenda and find its position in the global information revolution. According to the author, the single most important obstacle to access is the refusal of African nations to plan collectively. This would ensure that they developed joint strategies to participate in the IT revolution instead of simply being spectators – at IT fairs, for example. These strategies would include not only pooling resources for purchases, but also learning about the technologies to a point where they could replicate and modify them and reduce dependence on external sources. Policy developers should be able to organize strategies and means of accessing information to apply towards the aggregation of cultural artifacts and their subsequent dissemination, and create capacities for data collection and exchange of information across sectors.
    Many of the sources for the aggregation of African cultural content are dying away, without this information being passed on. Like Nwodu (2007), the author agreed that ICTs might be the tools to facilitate these aggregation efforts. The author argued that a lot of content exists in Africa that is begging to be recognized and treated accordingly. In essence, the new ICTs could have a positive impact on the cultural renaissance of Africa

    8. Ssenyonga, Allan B. (2006) “Americanization or Globalization?” Global
    Envision. MercyCorps, 2 Oct. 2006. Web. 4 Nov. 2012.
    . Retrieved on

    A Ugandan writer who is exploring the growing influence of American culture around the world wrote this article. The article is obviously biased and attempted to influence readers to conclude that globalization is in fact Americanization. This article will aid a research on the definition of globalization as well as its impacts. It will also be useful in the research for the question of “is globalization a “good” thing for Americans and the United States” because it gave a different view of globalization which makes one question if it is good or not. It comes from a Ugandan point of view, explaining how globalization has negatively impacted smaller and poorer nations and gives the idea that globalization has led to war for Americans for example. It shows that globalization can be a powerful thing for Americans, but also have negative effects.

    9. Levitt, T. (1983). “The Globalization of Markets.” Harvard Business
    Review pg 92-102

    The author sought to understand the two vectors that shape the world today – technology and globalization. The first helps determine human preferences, the second, economic realities. The global companies systematically push these vectors toward their own convergence, offering everyone simultaneously high-quality, more or less standardized products at low prices. Technology is a powerful force that has driven the world towards a converging commonality. Almost everybody everywhere wants all the things they have heard about, seen, or experienced via the new technologies. The cultural differences are becoming more and more homogenized. The result is a new commercial reality—the emergence of global markets for standardized consumer products on a previously unimagined scale of magnitude. Organizations need to move from being multinational to global corporations. The organizations that do not adapt to the new global realities will become victims of those that do. Only global companies will achieve long-term success by concentrating on what everyone wants rather than worrying about the details of what everyone thinks they might like.

    10. Ogan, C. L., Bashir, M., Camai, L., Luo, Y., Gaddie, B.,
    Pennington, R., Rana, S., and Salih, M. (2009)
    ‘Development Communication: The State of Research in an Era
    of ICTs and Globalization. International Communication
    Gazette, 71, No. 8 (2009): 655-670.

    Through the technique of meta-analysis, this study investigated the scholarly articles that appeared in peer-reviewed online and offline journals that address the topic of communication and development from 1998 to 2007 to determine publication trends in the field. The research was prompted by the sense that development was moving off the research agenda of most communication scholars. This seemed surprising in the era of ICT and globalization and it was decided to examine the literature for evidence. The study found that published studies have moved away from mass communication and toward ICTs’ role in development; that they infrequently address development in the context of globalization and often continue to embrace a modernization paradigm despite its many criticisms. In addition, International Communication Gazette was found to be the only mainstream communication journal to include a significant number of articles on development communication. The result of this study reminds mass communication scholars and researchers the need to remain focused on the core research needs of the discipline.

    1. Nice done. Ten works received. I commend your thoroughness in doing this annotated bibliography. Well done.

  3. Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2013). Changing course: Ten years of tracking online education in the United States. Babson Park, MA: Babson Survey Research Group.
    Surveys the administrators of 2,800 colleges and universities regarding implementation of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Finds that 2.6% have a MOOC; 9.4% report working on MOOCs; 55.4% are undecided about MOOCs; and 32.7% have no plans for a MOOC. Approximately 69% indicate that online learning is critical to their long-term strategy, with 32% of their students taking at least one online course. More than 44% respond that it takes more faculty time and effort to teach online than to conduct face-to-face courses, and 77% report that online course outcomes are the same or superior to face-to-face outcomes. Approximately 30% indicate that their faculty accepts the value and legitimacy of online education, yet 88.8% suggest the need for students to be more disciplined in online courses.

    Baaijen, V. M., Galbraith, D., & de Glopper, K. (2012). Keystroke analysis: Reflections on procedures and measures. Written Communication, 29(3), 246–277.
    Describes and demonstrates procedures, measures, and analytic techniques used to improve the
    alignment between keystroke logging and underlying writing processes. In a three-phase experiment, participants planned and wrote an article for a university newspaper. Eighty keystroke logs created during text production were analyzed for bursts, pauses, and revisions as well as interrelationships between these components. The authors identify and discuss four goals to inform writing research: (1) establish a set of procedures for separating different components of the writing process to relate keystroke measures more directly to specific cognitive processes; (2) use mixture modeling to estimate the parameters of pauses at different locations; (3) establish
    how best to divide the bursts of language occurring during text production; and (4) identify when and how often revisions occur.

    Bulfin, S., & Koutsogiannis, D. (2012). New literacies as multiply placed practices: Expanding perspectives on young people’s literacies across home and school. Language & Education, 26(4), 331–346.
    Reports on two studies of 14- to 16-year-olds in Australia and Greece, explores the relationships between students’ uses of digital media in and out of school through case study methodology. Critiques media policy and research discourses related to young people’s digital literacies and argues that much of the literature on students’ uses of digital technologies invokes a revitalized home-school mismatch hypothesis. Describes how this hypothesis frames young people’s in- and out-of-school digital literacy practices as dichotomous and presents three challenges of this “autonomous” view of digital literacies. The study finds that the relationship between literacy and digital media use in and outside of school is more complex than is often presented in media commentary and research. It argues for more careful consideration of the relationship between in-school and out-of-school practices and knowledge.

    Cingel, D. P., & Sundar, S. (2012). Texting, techspeak, and tweens: The relationship between text messaging and English grammar skills. New Media & Society, 14(8), 1304–1320.
    Addresses whether increased use of text messaging by youth engenders greater reliance on such
    “textual adaptations” to the point of altering written grammar. Analyzes surveys and grammar assessment results of 228 middle school youth to determine the association between texting behavior and grammar scores. Finds a generally negative relationship between the use of “text speak” in text messaging and students’ grammar test scores. Mediation analyses reveal that word adaptations, including abbreviations, letter omissions, and homophones, are negatively related to grammar scores, but structural adaptations, such as punctuation and capitalization changes, are not significantly related. Implications are discussed for transfer of learned adaptations to Standard English, via both participation and observation of communicative efforts.

    Connolly, T. M., Boyle, E. A., MacArthur, E., Hainey, T., & Boyle, J. M. (2012). A systematic literature review of empirical evidence on computer games and serious games. Computers & Education, 59(2), 661–686.
    Explores the empirical literature on computer games and the potential positive impacts of gaming on users aged 14 years or above, especially with respect to learning, skill enhancement, and engagement. Analyzes 129 studies using a multidimensional approach to categorizing games that examines games’ main purpose, genres, subject disciplines, and learning and behavioral outcomes. Finds that playing computer games is linked to a range of perceptual, cognitive, behavioral, affective, and motivational impacts and outcomes, with the most frequently occurring outcomes including knowledge acquisition/content understanding and affective and motivational impact. Discusses the diversity of research on positive impacts and outcomes of playing digital games and calls for more randomized control trials and qualitative studies of gaming.

    Curwood, J. S., Magnifico, A. M., & Lammers, J. C. (2013). Writing in the wild: Writers’ motivation in fan-based affinity spaces. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(8), 677–685.
    Builds on Gee’s concept of affinity spaces to explore adolescents’ interest-driven writing in online spaces. Examines three online affinity spaces affiliated with Neopets, The Hunger Games, and The Sims through affinity space ethnography. Argues that fan-based affinity spaces motivate young adults to write because they offer multiple modes of representation, diverse pathways to participation, and an authentic audience. Discusses how educators can learn from the ways these out-of-school spaces offer youth new purposes, modes, and tools for their written work.

    Domingo, M. (2012). Linguistic layering: Social language development in the context of multimodal design and digital technologies. Learning, Media & Technology, 37(2), 177–197.
    Draws on data from a three-year ethnography of six Filipino British youth in London who engaged in multilingual and multimodal exchanges across physical and digital spaces. Finds that their linguistic exchanges both drew from and extended beyond in-school literacy practices, migrating across contexts and facilitating their social language development. Argues that the transcultural youth engaged in a process of linguistic layering of modes that spatially and temporally carried social and cultural meanings. Describes how the youth’s linguistic layering functioned as a cross-cultural remix that extended beyond code-switching and included multimodal design and circulation of hybrid texts. Discusses the pedagogical implications of multimodal pedagogy and linguistic layering in fostering social and cultural awareness of language and literacy.

    Goldman, S. R., Braasch, J. G., Wiley, J., Graesser, A. C., & Brodowinska, K. (2012). Comprehending and learning from Internet sources: Processing patterns of better and poorer learners. Reading Research Quarterly, 47(4), 356–381.
    Explores the processes involved in online multiple-source comprehension and learning. Utilizes
    a three-phase experimental methodology (think-aloud, writing, and final assessment) to unk-
    AB6 Research in the Teaching of English Volume 48 November 2013 derstand sense-making, evaluation, and navigation reading processes used by 10 better and 11 poorer adult learners during an online reading task. Results indicate that better learners engage in more sense-making and comprehension-monitoring processes on reliable websites than on unreliable sites. Better learners also engage in more goal-directed navigation than poorer learners. Four representative cases are used to illustrate how evaluation processes contribute to navigation decisions. Suggests that online multiple-source comprehension is a dynamic process that involves interplay among sense-making, monitoring, and evaluation processes.

    Ito, M., Gutiérrez, K., Livingstone, S., Penuel, B., Rhodes, J., Salen, K., . . . Watkins, S. C. (2013). Connected learning: An agenda for research and design. Retrieved from Digital Media and Learning Research Hub website: http://dmlhub.net/sites/default/files/ConnectedLearning_report.pdf
    Reports on ongoing research, design, and implementation of an approach to education called “connected learning.” Explains that connected learning is realized when youth pursue a personal interest or passion with the support of friends and caring adults and can link this learning and interest to academic achievement, career success, or civic engagement. Advocates for broadened access to learning that is socially embedded, interest-driven, and oriented toward educational, economic, or political opportunity. Explores challenges of creating integrated learning opportunities for all young people, and offers a detailed framework for connected learning that includes three crucial contexts for learning (peer-supported, interest-powered, and academically oriented), three core properties of connected learning (production-centered, shared purpose, openly networked), and four design principles for creating connected learning environments (everyone can participate, learning happens by doing, challenge is constant, everything is connected). Describes how new media enhances connected learning opportunities by fostering engagement and self-expression, increasing accessibility to knowledge and learning experiences, expanding social supports for interests, expanding diversity, and building capacity.

    Kiili, C., Laurinen, L., Marttunen, M., & Leu, D. J. (2012). Working on understanding during collaborative online reading. Journal of Literacy Research, 44(4), 448–483.
    Examines how 19 pairs of students in Finland (16–18 years of age) constructed meaning and knowledge in a collaborative online reading situation. Video screen capture and an interaction approach to verbal protocol data were used to examine how self-selected pairs of students discussed the topic of Internet censorship, gathered source materials online, and composed a joint essay. Findings indicate that the greatest proportion of time (65%) was spent on content processing that supported collaborative meaning or knowledge construction, but that the ability to locate information (23% of time spent) was important to online reading comprehension. Overall, pair co-construction of meaning or knowledge averaged three times as long as individual construction of meaning or knowledge, and contained more than three times as many reading strategies. Five collaborative reading profiles were identified: co-constructors (two pairs), collaborators (two pairs), blenders (six pairs), individually oriented readers (four pairs), and silent readers (five pairs). Student pairs who spent the greatest proportion of time on co-constructing meaning or knowledge received the highest scores on their essays; student pairs who spent the least amount of time received the lowest scores.

    Kyle, F., Kujala, J., Richardson, U., Lyytinen, H., & Goswami, U. (2013). Assessing the effectiveness of two theoretically motivated computer-assisted reading interventions in the United Kingdom: GG Rime and GG Phoneme. Reading Research Quarterly, 48(1), 61–76.
    Compares the effectiveness of two computer-assisted reading interventions that were provided as a supplement to ongoing classroom literacy instruction for 31 second graders identified by teachers as poor readers. Interventions were based on the Finnish GraphoGame (English Grapho-
    Game Rime and English GraphoGame Phoneme) and were created to help enhance students’ Annotated Bibliography AB7 grapheme–phoneme conversion skills for reading and spelling English words. Both games led to gains in reading, spelling, and phonological skills that were maintained four months postintervention. Suggests that these computer-assisted reading interventions aid students’ learning of decoding and spelling when coupled with classroom literacy instruction through provision of individualized instruction and practice in the component skills of reading.

    Madden, M., Lenhart, A., Cortesi, S., Gasser, U., Duggan, M., Smith, A., & Beaton, M. (2013). Teens, social media, and privacy. Retrieved from the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project website: http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2013/Teens-Social-Media-And-Privacy.aspx
    Surveys 802 adolescents regarding their privacy management on social media/informationsharing sites such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Google Plus, Twitter, Instagram, and Tumblr. Finds that adolescents are sharing more personal information in their profiles than was the case in the past and do not express high levels of concern about third parties accessing their data, although 60% keep their Facebook profiles private and 74% have deleted people from their network or friends list. Results suggest that enthusiasm for Facebook is waning, while use of Twitter has increased. 93% have a computer or access to a home computer; 37% have smartphones; 23% have a tablet; and 25% mostly use their phones to access the Internet.

    Norton, B., & Williams, C. (2012). Digital identities, student investments and eGranary as a
    placed resource. Language & Education: An International Journal, 26(4), 315–329.
    Reports on a study of the uptake of a digital portable library in a rural village in Uganda, focusing on six secondary students working as library scholars in the local library. Draws on two theoretical frameworks to explore how this digital portable library, eGranary, functioned as a placed resource in the local space. Uses Blommaert’s construct of scale to illustrate how space and time were implicated in the participants’ uses of eGranary and its function in the wider community, including resistance by community members without access to the system. Illustrates how the participants’ identities shifted over time from trainee to tutor as their interactions with the technology within the community enhanced what was socially imaginable. Concludes that the portable digital library traveled well to this community in Uganda but that the local resources available in the community ultimately limited its usefulness and uptake.

    Peterson, S. S., & McClay, J. K. (2012). Assumptions and practices in using digital technologies to teach writing in middle-level classrooms across Canada. Literacy, 46(3), 140–146.
    Reports findings of a national study of the teaching of writing in Canadian middle-level classrooms (students ages 9–15). Focuses on teachers’ practices as well as their philosophies on teaching writing and includes questions pertaining to digital technologies. Phase one of the study consisted of phone interviews with 216 middle-level teachers in representative districts. Phase two consisted of classroom observations, teacher and student interviews, and document analysis. Results suggest that access plays a role in the frequency and types of interactions that students and teachers have with computers in writing classes. Teachers’ beliefs about writing development, effective pedagogy, and technologies complement, complicate, and challenge the
    incorporation of digitally infused writing.

    Rosen, L. D., Carrier, L. M., & Cheever, N. A. (2013). Facebook and texting made me do it:
    Media-induced task-switching while studying. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 948–958.
    Explores whether technological distractions affect academic learning by observing 263 middle school, high school, and university students studying for 15 minutes in their homes. Data colk-AB8 Research in the Teaching of English Volume 48 November 2013 lecture included a questionnaire about study strategies, task-switching preference, technology attitudes, media usage, monthly texting and phone calling, social networking use, and grade point average, as well as an observation protocol that recorded minute-by-minute assessments of on-task behavior, off-task technology use, and open computer windows during studying. Findings show that participants averaged less than 6 minutes on task prior to switching and averaged 10 minutes spent on task out of the 15 minutes observed. Switching most often occurred due to technological distractions (e.g., social media, texting) and preference for task-switching. Recommends offering short “technology breaks” to reduce distractions and teaching students metacognitive strategies they can use when interruptions negatively affect learning.

    Stornaiuolo, A., DiZio, J., Hellmich, E., & Hull, G. A. (2013). Expanding community: Youth, social networking, and schools. Comunicar, XX(40), 79–87.
    Examines 59 middle school youth in five US schools participating in an after-school media arts
    program who communicated with each other via social networking. Finds that youth built online
    community through two kinds of interactional effort: public work and proximity work. Discusses how young people used a variety of semiotic tools to establish relationships and communicate with unknown others, negotiating their positions relative to one another (proximity work) and across public/private spaces (public work). Suggests that schools can play an important role in building online and hybrid communities that foster ethical and socially aware exchanges.

    Tan, L. (2013). Production-on-the-go practice: Storyboarding as a retrospective and redundant school literacy activity. Learning, Media & Technology, 38(1), 86–101.
    Examines the use of storyboarding in the classroom media production activities of 10 Chinese youth in Singapore. The ethnographic methodologies used in the eight-month study were guided by the theories of New Literacy Studies. Findings indicate that “on-the-go” production, rather than the sequential process encouraged by teachers, better captured the kinds of activities the youth engaged in. Student groups mainly engaged in storyboarding retroactively to satisfy the teacher’s requirements, with the storyboarding functioning as a redundant practice in some cases. The author argues that the technological demands of the task shaped the storyboarding practice, making the two-step process of design-production encouraged by teachers less relevant to youth’s practices.

    Wastiau, P., Blamire, R., Kearney, C., Quittre, V., Van de Gaer, E., & Monseur, C. (2013). The use of ICT in education: A survey of schools in Europe. European Journal of Education, 48, 11–27.
    Reports the results of the Survey in Schools: ICT in Education (2011) that served to benchmark access, use, and attitudes toward information and communication technologies (ICT) in schools in the European Union, Croatia, Iceland, Norway, and Turkey. Using a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, more than 190,000 questionnaire answers were gathered from students, teachers, and head teachers in primary, lower secondary, and upper secondary schools. The authors present findings around primary indicators concerning ICT infrastructure and access to it, frequency of students’ ICT-based activities during lessons, teachers’ and students’ level of confidence in their digital competences, opinions about using ICT for teaching and learning, and school strategies to support ICT integration in teaching and learning. Two highlights: (1) as of 2011, there are around twice as many computers per 100 students in secondary schools than there were in 2006, and broadband is almost ubiquitous in schools (95% of schools compared with 65%–75% in 2006); and (2) teachers primarily use ICT to prepare for teaching, with few using ICT to work with students or communicate with parents.

    Woo, M. M., Chu, S. K. W., & Li, X. (2013). Peer-feedback and revision process in a wiki mediated collaborative writing. Educational Technology Research and Development, 61(2), 279–309.
    Explores the revision processes of three classes of primary school students (n = 119; ages 10–12)
    engaged in collaborative writing via a PBworks wiki. Based in Hong Kong, this case study investigates two English-language nonfiction writing projects completed by groups of four students. Quantitative and qualitative data are analyzed from wiki records, including posted edits and comments, students’ group writings, and student and teacher interviews. Comment type is specifically explored (content vs. surface level; revision vs. nonrevision; type of revision). Findings show that two of three classes recorded more content- and meaning-level comments than surface-level comments, and these comments were more revision-oriented. Revision types, in general, tended to be more content- and meaning-level in nature.

    Yang, Y. C., & Wu, W. I. (2012). Digital storytelling for enhancing student academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation: A year-long experimental study. Computers and Education, 59, 339–352.
    Investigates the impact of digital storytelling on academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation of Taiwanese high school students learning English. This 22-week quasiexperimental study involved 110 tenth-grade students in two classes. One class utilized digital storytelling and the comparison group utilized lecture-based, technology-infused instruction. Students in both classes completed three pre- and posttests measuring achievement, critical thinking, and motivation and participated in group interviews. Descriptive analysis, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), and qualitative content analysis were used for data analysis. Findings indicate that digital storytelling participants performed significantly better than comparison participants in English academic achievement, critical thinking, and learning motivation. Digital storytelling participants also reported increased understanding of course content.

    1. Good. We find 20 works here. You worked hard but I must note that your presentation style in some of them is not acceptable. This ones you’ve done have been accepted so please improve on others. Some instances of the weak presentation style are as follows; “Examines three online….” “Finds that youth built online….” ” Focuses on teachers’ practices….”
      This may seem minor but the sentence has to be coherent. Meanwhile what you did in the first two works presented is not annotated bibliography. You did not analyze the work. You simply copied and pasted the objectives and findings.
      Finally, I must note that you really worked hard to identify these 20 jobs for analysis. Well done.

  4. An annotated bibliography is a summary and or evaluation of each sources. Depending on your project or the assignment. Annotation may either do one of the following: summarize, assess, reflect.
    It can help you gain good perspective on what is being said about a topic. The following are some annotated bibliography on newspaper, magazines and books.
    1. Isiaka Zubair Aliagan (2016). Free versus fee: The freemium factor in Nigeria’s Newspapers contents on the web. Journal of communication and media research, Vol. 8, No 1, – 14.
    The author used the digital contents of Nigeria Newspapers online to examine to what extent the newspapers have implemented the freemium principle and what impact this has had on the digital contents of Nigeria Newspapers Website. It was discovered that newspapers conformed to the assumption that online newspapers are becoming more of a service than a product and that newspapers organizations now resemble “information engines” rather than printing industry (Veglis 2007)
    2. Chris Ogbondah and Etim Anim, (2015). Beyond religion news: A descriptive analysis of editorial themes in Iwe Irohin, Nigeria’s first newspapers. Journal of communication and media research, Vol.7, No 2, pp 15-33.
    The research had comprehensive newspaper’s contents from March 1860 when it debuted to October 1867 when it stopped publication in order to thematically analyze its contents to know the full panoply of its character, contents and focus. Secondly, to also know if the newspaper was merely a religious newspaper. To get results, thematic listings was based on a review of reporting beats covered by contemporary reporters which gave 15 dominant editorial themes. It was found that Iwe Irohin was far more than a Christian newsreel, as it covered the major issues of public interest, and significance for the audience of today. The paper reported political, social and economic issues at home and abroad, just as contemporary newspapers do.
    3. Babatunde, R.O. and Ridwan, A.K., (2016). Marginalizing the majority: Nigerian newspapers coverage of the rural sections in a profit – driven economy. Journal of communication and media research, Vol. 8, No. 1, PP 35 – 51.
    The study examined the performance of Nigerian print media, in the context of neoliberalism, regarding the coverage of the less-urban sections as compared to the attention given to the urban centers. Papers like the Guardian, Nigerian Tribune and the Vanguard were content analyzed.
    Likewise, six reporters and two editors from the newspapers were purposively selected for in-depth interviews. It was discovered that the selected newspapers did not fare well in their social responsibilities and development roles. They gave more attention to the urban centers to the neglect of the rural sections. The only occasions when the rural sections received appreciable media attention was when negative stories brake out.
    4. Potter, Simon J., (2003). News and the British world: The emergence of an imperial press system, 1876-1922. Oxford: Oxford university press.
    The study looks at how the flow of news around British Empire was influenced by changing communication technology, the commercial interests of newspaper enterprises to shape the press into a tool of imperial communication.
    5. Bellman Geoffrey M., (2001). Getting things done when you are not in charge 2d ed. San Francisco: Berett-Koehler.
    This book provides guidance for initiating and leading charges in the organization, regardless of one’s formal position written for people in all types of settings, this book is especially relevant to professionals and support workers who are not in positions of authority, but who want to make a difference in the workplace. The author presents his “Getting things done” model and gives practical advice on the following chapters, pursuing your aspirations, discovering dreams, what is really happening; build common understanding, face the politics, seek the priorities, who makes a difference, enlisting able partners,” controlling work dynamics” “dealing with decision makers” “How might you help” “Find the coverage to risk” “Making your work rewarding” “create change” and Actions that get things done.
    6. Nwabueze, C., Ugochukwu, C. and Egbra, O. (2014). Newspaper coverage of Nigeria Police activities: A content Analysis. AFRREV LALIGENS: An international journal of languages, literature and gender studies. Ethiopia. The researchers used content analysis to analyse the newspaper coverage of police activities in Nigerian from January to March, 2012. Three National Dailies (the Nation, The Punch and Daily Sun) were study. And a conclusion was reached that most stories about the Nigeria police were presented as straight news stories instead of in-depth reporting. This was due to the non availability of information. It was also found that there were more negative stories about the Nigeria police on news papers.
    7. Herman, Edward S. and Noam Chomsky, (1988). Manufacturing consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. New York: Pantheon. This work look at influential set of theories about how newspapers and other mass media influence public attitudes. While primarily discussing the United States (looking at issues such as coverage of the Vietnam war, the ideas presented by Herman and Chomsky have wider relevance.
    8. Dele Odunlami, (2016). ICTS, Digital divide and the contemporary socialization process; insights from Nigeria. Journal of communication and media research, Vol.8 No1, PP 219-226. This study focused on the effect and impact of information and Communication Technology (ICTS) on every sector of life. It looks at the fear expressed that unequal access to ICTS, especially the internet, will further widen the digital divide between the information – rich and the information- poor in line with the principles of knowledge Gap Hypothesis. It stated that in Nigeria, as in many less developed countries, although access to internet is widening, some socio-economic consideration still make the internet an expensive platform for many prospective patrons, which if left unaddressed will continue to give an edge to the privileged, urban-based and computer – savvy elite and ruling class.
    9. Tokunbo Alex Adaja, (2016). Newspaper Coverage of anti-corruption issues in Nigeria, 1995-2011. Journal of communication and media research, Vol8, No. 1, PP 53-65. This study examined the prominence given to corruption stories by the Nigerian press using the content analysis method. It covered 16 years (May 29, 1995 – May 28, 2011) of the Punch, Daily champion and The Guardian Newspapers which were randomly selected. It was revealed that the Nigerian press mostly depend on government for its news stories on corruption.
    10. Rasaq M. Adisa, (2016). Newspaper framing of ethnic issues and conflict behavior in Nigeria. Journal of communication and Media Research, Vol.8, No.1, PP 67-85. This study explored framing of ethnic issues and conflict behaviour in Nigeria through a mixed methods design of qualitative and quantitative. It was discovered that conflict behavior impulses and structural factors like poverty, domination, and inequality are helixes but occasional realistic trigger for the eventual action was traced to newspaper framing and ethnic group leaders’ rheostat.

    1. We find 10 jobs here. About 90 percent are irrelevant to your topic. You were instructed to search for materials on ICTs and newspapers. So we expect works on how ICTs have enhanced newspaper business or ICT use in newspaper industry. I wonder what a work on ‘newspaper coverage of police activities’ is doing here. You seem not to have understood what you were assigned to do honestly. All these works on newspaper coverage and framing which you reviewed have nothing to do with what you were told to do.

  5. Annotated Bibliography

    Baumgarten Carolyn (2012). The Agriculture Industry Goes Social. Retrieved from http://mashable.com/2012/08/31/agriculture-industry-social-media/#6KDrvv0y.gqLlogo.v2.us6653972cc831bd09732d26dc9da67bd6be0c4d2b28757f116791336ccf2146ec. Accessed on 10/10/2017.
    Baumgarten (2012) reports that AgChat Foundation works to get people talking and building outreach through the weekly #AgChats on Twitter. These chats have seen more than 2,000 participants from seven countries and four continents. #AgChat is moderated by a different agricultural professional each week. These Twitter chats provide them with great insight into the agricultural industry, and also give farmers a chance to prove their thought leadership in a public forum. Participating in these chats enable farmers to network within the field and gain respect and recognition from peers.
    Imo O. Grade (2007). Rural community resistance to technology use: Lessons from population, child survival and HIV-AIDS campaigns in Africa. In I. E. Nwosu & O. Soola (Eds). Communication in Global, ICTs and Ecosystem Perspectives: Insights from Nigeria. (pp 32-52). Enugu: African Council for Communication Education.
    Rural dwellers resist technology use for health purpose because their lives and approach to problems solving are determined by cultural beliefs, norms and values rather than by scientific principles. Other constrains to adoption of technology include: the source of the technology, the unknown element of the technology, and the nature of the technology itself.
    Lathiya Amit, Rathod Arvind & Choudhary Kuldeep (2015). Role of social media in agriculture. International Journal of Commerce and Business Management, 8 (2): 268-273.
    To Lathiya, Rathod and Choudhary (2015), overuse of social networks can lead to procrastination and a tendency to waste time and become addicted to constantly being updated on what is happening around the agriculture world. They opined that since the advantages of using the social media have no direct, immediate and easily recognised financial returns, there is an opportunity cost of time that must be acknowledged.
    Guanah, Seigha Jammy et al. (2017). Social media, Youths and Agricultural Development in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. International Journal of Communication, [S.l.], v. 22, n. 1, dec. 2017. ISSN 1597- 4324. Available at: .
    Technology has made communication easier whereby farmers now use the social media to interact with other farmers and with their consumers directly. With the social media agriculture’s messages can be intensified hence agricultural industries are enhancing their development within social media and expanding their businesses to reach the general public. Only science and technology-based agricultural practise would add value to the nation’s economic development.
    Mendoza B. Naki (2016). How social networks can boost small holder agriculture. Retrieved from https://www.devex.com/news/how-social-networks-can-boost-smallholder-agriculture-88534.
    Mendoza (2016) claims Short Message Service (SMS) communication- text alerts on first generation feature phones- remains one of the most widely adopted methods for agribusiness collaboration. He says interventions typically involve information blasts on anything from weather patterns to fertilizer techniques that allow farmers to more efficiently manage their crops.
    Newmedia.dash (2015). Social media: Friend or foe to the agriculture community? Retrieved from http://jour3751spring17.newmedia.dash.umn.edu/blog/blog-post-2/social-media-friend-or-foe-to-the-agriculture-community/tent. Accessed on 5/11/2017.
    In America, social media platforms have allowed the younger generation to showcase what they love about agriculture while also sharing a positive depiction of farm life. Blogs have also contributed to a more positive image of the agriculture community because they have the power to contribute to the public agenda.
    Nnamani, A. (2016). Tech: Onu: Agriculture must be science, technology driven. Retrieved from http://sunnewsonline.com/tech-onu-agriculture-must-be-science-technology-driven/.
    Nnamani (2016) quotes Nigeria`s Minister of Science and Technology, Ogbonnaya Onu, to having said that “If we don’t mechanise the process of faming, we can never get young people to farm because I cannot see any young person who will go and use the machete that our great-grandfathers used,”.
    Okpoko, J. I. (2007). Ict and agro-allied industries in Nigeria: A case study of Federal superphosphate fertilizer company Kaduna. The Nigerian Journal of Communication. 5(1):149-162.
    Okpoko (2007) asserts that “agriculture can only become a viable business if the tedium of farming is removed through the introduction of modern working tools, including the ICT to help in the entire process of farm planning, planting, harvesting, storage, distributing and marketing…”
    Stanley Sophie (2013). A Report for the New Zealand Nuffield Farming Scholarship Trust Harnessing Social Media in Agriculture. Nuffield NZ: Ontario Canada.
    Stanley (2013) opines that the value of social media for the agricultural industry lies in the value of social capital, it brings about a cordial relationship among the farmer, industry and consumer thereby bringing about more transparency, engagement, trust, and authenticity in the supply chain. He identifies four key areas of value of the social media, to wit, networking (Farmer-Farmer) via social media platforms (such as Twitter); Industry Knowledge, Extension & Marketing (Farmer – Agricultural Industry); Consumer Engagement (Farmer/Industry – Consumer), and Crisis communication.
    Suchiradipta, B. & Saravanan, R. (2016). Social media: Shaping the future of agricultural extension and advisory services, GFRAS interest group on ICT4RAS discussion paper, GFRAS: Lindau, Switzerland.
    These researchers carried out the Global Forum for Rural Advisory Services (GFRAS) global survey on the use of social media in agricultural extension and advisory services conducted online across 60 countries and 226 respondents provided interesting results.. Overall, the survey found that social media is a very useful tool in agricultural extension and rural advisory services. Suchiradipta and Saravanan (2016) describe the social media as potential goldmine that can be used to engage with clients online, to help rural community gain a voice, make development bottom-up, more fruitful innovation brokering, and engaging with all the actors in agricultural innovation systems on the same social media platform.

    1. I see 17 jobs here. I am sure you know most of what you did here is not annotated bibliography. What is this:
      “Nnamani, A. (2016). Tech: Onu: Agriculture must be science, technology driven. Retrieved from http://sunnewsonline.com/tech-onu-agriculture-must-be-science-technology-driven/.
      Nnamani (2016) quotes Nigeria`s Minister of Science and Technology, Ogbonnaya Onu, to having said that “If we don’t mechanise the process of faming, we can never get young people to farm because I cannot see any young person who will go and use the machete that our great-grandfathers used,”.
      Okpoko, J. I. (2007). Ict and agro-allied industries in Nigeria: A case study of Federal superphosphate fertilizer company Kaduna. The Nigerian Journal of Communication. 5(1):149-162.”
      Just note that this is not what you were told to do. Read what Nzeribe and Onyima did for a true sample of what you should do. If the next set of jobs you submit end up like this they will not be accepted. Thanks for agreeing to do the right thing.


    1.Love, O. A., & Chilaka, F. C. (2016). Information and Communication Technology (ICT) application in social and political system. European Journal of Research in Social Sciences, 4, 51-63.
    The researchers, scholars in the department of political science, Federal University Otuoke Bayelsa State, Nigeria obtained the data primarily from secondary sources. The study identifies specific challenges which affect the applicability of ICT and its implications to national development. They concluded on the study that ICTs can offer real opportunities to improve the social and political systems of the Nigerian economy if considerable efforts are made to provide adequate infrastructures, maintain and sensitize the public on the need to embrace and apply the knowledge of ICT in their social life, political cum electoral process.
    2. Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. (2010). The new media and our political communication discontents: democratizing cyberspace, Information, Communication & Society, 4:1, 1-13.

    The scholars argued that the new interactive media have a ‘vulnerable potential’ to enhance public communications and enrich democracy, which can be realized only through appropriate policy support and imaginative institution building. After outlining the main shortcomings of the prevailing political communication system, certain elements of redemptive potential, inherent in distinctive features of the Internet, are identified. The policy implications of this analysis are then drawn for the public-service obligations of mainstream media, to ensure open access to new media platforms, and to create a ‘civic commons’ in cyberspace.

    3. Garrett, R. K, Bimber, B., De Zuniga 4. Heindery ckx, F, Kelly, J., & Smith M. (2012). New ICT’s and the study of political communication. International journal of communication, 6, 214-231.

    The authors researchers at Ohio State University, University of California, Santa Barbara, University of Texas, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Harvard Law School and Connected Action Consulting Group submitted that since inception, the relevance of individual of (individual-level) models of political communication has been tied, implicitly and explicitly, to electoral systems, which function as the mechanism by which the discipline has been able to bridge what a sociologist would call the micro-macro divide. This has contributed to the criticism of the discipline as being too U.S.-focused, or at least relevant only to certain modes of democratic society. After all, in places where elections do not happen or do not matter, it is hardly important whether a given phenomenon makes a particular category of the population 5% more or less likely to vote, agree with a proposition, prefer one politician over another, etc. and yet as recent events in the Arab world have highlighted, Internet-era, political communication processes are implicated in large-scale political-shifts, some with global consequences. Even in societies with open electoral systems, the internet’s impact on politics is being felt well outside the voting booth, such as in the diminishing power of the news media to constrain elite behavior.

    4. Abubakar, M.S. (2016): An exploratory of social media usage and developmental outcomes by government and emerging political leaders- The Nigerian experience. A doctoral thesis in Salford Business School Centre for Digital Business College of Business and Law.

    The researcher was a doctoral candidate of the above institution. The debates examined in this study are not sure whether ICTs and social media can potentially be an empowerment in enhancing social change in a democratic setting, the findings through ‘capability approach’ revealed that new digital media provide the opportunity to voice opinion against Nigerian’s exploitative political institutions, and help citizens to make decision makers accountable and drive improvements in service delivery. The contribution supports techno-optimistic theories that use, choice and adoption of technologies potentially reflect in political development and effective service delivery.

    5. Okeke, C., Chinonye, F. & , Obi, I., (2016). Social Media As A Political Platform In Nigeria: A Focus On Electorates In South-Eastern Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 21, 11, 6-22.

    The researchers who are scholars of both Nnamdi Azikiwe and Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu Universities established the fact that in spite of the challenges of social media, it represents a veritable avenue for political change by socializing citizens into the political beliefs required for democratic citizenship, and thereby promote sustainable democracy. Their work argued that the widespread use of the Internet for social networking, blogging, video-sharing and tweeting has a functional relationship with participatory democracy. Agreeing with Bonin (2013) the authors maintained that social media platforms are the newest lenses through which we are experiencing the products of journalism. They facilitate online communities created by readers, listeners and viewers to discuss issues, have their voices heard, and get feedback in record time. The fact that social media is a supportive avenue for sharing views and opinions and discussing political life in the country implies that the social media can play an important role in deepening democracy, if conscientiously and patriotically utilized for that purpose.

    6. Ekeanyanwu, N. T., Kalyyango, Y., & Peters, A. S. (2012). Global news flow debate in the era of social media networks: Is the U.S media still the world’s news leader? European Scientific Journal, 8, 3, 136-160.

    Two authors were at the time of this research, researchers from the Department of Mass Communication Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria, and one Director, Institute of International Journalism, Scripps College of Communication Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, USA. Using secondary data from the Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism (2010), the researchers conclude that the United States coverage of the world has shifted focus in terms of the quantity of news about non-U.S. that one can find in the U.S. media. Whether this is cost situated or that there are other predictive factors causing this is still an area to research into. Then submitted that if the trend continues unabated in the next five years, United States will seize to be the world news leader in terms of being the eyes and ears of the globe and clarified that social media have made it easy for “everyone” to be informed in either mainstream traditional journalism or peripheral citizen journalism. There are now multiple sources for news gathering and dissemination and greater access and mass participation in the news production and distribution business. This implies that no nation or people could justify any further cry of marginalization in how they are covered or reported. The social media networks have liberalized the process to encourage popular participation.

    7. KeneChukwu, S. A. (2015). New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO) and World Communication Problem: a Proposal to the Nigerian Government. International Journal of Strategic Research in Education, Technology and Humanities, 2, 2, 1-12.

    The author, a researcher from the Department of Mass Communication Madonna University Okija, Anambra State, finds out the role of New World Information and Communication Order (NIWCO) in ensuring balance in information flow. The paper attempts to explain the concept of ethnocommunicology information and by extension, the villagisation of the media. This concept holds the idea that Africans can design their own media system, form and technology in order to export their indigenous communication and ways of life. The paper argues that besides implementing the tenets of NWICO through the use of modern technology, there is still need to employ traditional means of communication in turning developing nations into media-creators rather than media-consumers.

    8. Mansell, R. (2009). The Information Society and ICT Policy: A Critique of the Mainstream Vision and an Alternative Research Framework. Journal of Information, Communication & Ethics in society, http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/24990/

    The scholar is a researcher on New Media and the Internet, Head of the Department of Media and Communications, London School of Economics and Political Science, and Past-President of the International Association for Media and Communication Research. She is internationally known for her work on the social, economic, and political issues arising from new information, she concludes in this article that there are signs of learning and an awareness of unequal power relationships that may contribute to a shift in priorities towards a more context sensitive research framework that could be of value to those who are preoccupied by efforts to improve the material conditions of people’s lives.

    9. Pohle, J. (2016). Information for All? The emergence of UNESCO’s policy discourse on the information society (1990-2003). http://hdl.handle .net/10419/158025.

    The researcher was a doctoral student of Vrije University Brussel. The findings in his doctoral thesis suggested that UNESCO’s policy discourse was influenced by the concrete dynamics on the micro-level and conflicts between competing ideas far more than by abstract interests and overarching power structures. Based on the empirical evidence, the thesis frames these conflicting ideas as the result of paradoxes deriving from deep-rooted misunderstandings about the value of information and the possibility of intervention in a society driven by digital technology.

    10. Siyanbola, W., Adeyeye, A., Olaopa, O., & Hassan, O., (2016). Science, technology and innovation indicators in policy-making: the Nigerian experience. Palgrave Communications. 10.15.
    The authors used a system analysis framework, to bring into perspective the fundamental role played by STI indicators in providing scientific evidence for designing, formulating and implementing national innovation policy And conclude that the development and integration of scientific evidence like STI indicators will assist in the formulation of an efficient STI policy for economic growth and sustainable national development.
    In comparing the above articles, the findings on the work done by Love and Chilaka, Siyanbola et al, Blumler and Gurevitch, are in consistence with one another where the articles explicitly observed that ICT’s and social media gadgets are welcome idea but the policy implications of this analysis should be drawn to the public-service obligations of mainstream media, to ensure open access to new media platforms, and to create a ‘civic commons’ in cyberspace, which is also in tandem with the view of Abubakar, Okeke, Chinonye, & Obi that ICTs and social media can provide the opportunity to voice opinion against exploitative political institutions, help citizens to make decision, makes politicians accountable, drive improvements in service delivery and play an important role in deepening democracy, if conscientiously and patriotically utilized for that purpose
    Ekeanyanwu, et al noted that the United States coverage of the world has shifted focus in terms of the quantity of news about non-U.S. that you can find in the U.S. media and finally submitted that if the trend continues unabated in the next five years, United States will seize to be the world news leader in terms of being the eyes and ears of the globe which is inconsistence with KeneChukwu’s submission that was talking about employing traditional means of communication to turn developing nations into media-creators rather than media-consumers

    11. Alumona, I. M., & Ezenwegbu, J. C. (2018). Mass Media, diplomacy and global politics. Evolving thoughts on international communication, diplomacy and the social media In L. Nwodu and I. Onunkwo (ed) Evolving thoughts on international communication, diplomacy and the social media 132-148. Igbariam: COOU.

    The researchers, who are political scientist scholars in both department of political science, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam Campus and Paul University Awka, submitted that decisions taken or events that happen in a small part of the world have implications for many around the globe. They noted that the advancement in communication technology has not only contributed to the dynamism of global politics but also increased the pervasiveness and speed of the new mass media, which is central to global politics and diplomacy, diplomacy that is an integral part of international relations and by extension global politics. Therefore it is expected that it will equally be affected by the sweeping changes that has been brought about by contemporary mass media. By implication, the mass media has initiated and sustained constant change in the nature of global politics. Little wonder then that many governments have sought control of the mass media so as to influence policy decisions in world affairs.

    12. Okon, G. B., & Okogbule, E. E. (2016). New media applications and participation in the 2015 presidential election campaign by youth in Port Harcourt metropolis In D. Wilson (ed) Mass Media and the electoral process in Nigeria, 13-26. Uyo: ACCE.

    The researcher Okon a lecturer in the department of Mass communication, Rivers state University of Science and Technology with Okogbule a doctoral candidate in the department of Linguistic and Communication Studies, University of Port Harcourt using the survey method, revealed a diversionary trend in the use of new media by youths especially in the area of citizen journalism. The Nigerian factor as revealed in this finding does not significantly differ from that of the Asian countries as observed by Kin, Cheong, Kim and Jung (2010). According to them, the internet may facilitate citizenship among Asian youths although entertainment-related activities such as downloading music or playing games remain the most popular activities online. The imputation therefore is that many youths do not channel their new media use to participating in citizen journalism.

    13. Odii, C., Ngene, M. M & Okoye, J.I. (2018). Qualitative approach of influence of social media on global information and communication flow In L. Nwodu and I. Onunkwo (ed) Evolving thoughts on international communication, diplomacy and the social media 297-308. Igbariam: COOU.

    The authors researchers in the department of Mass Communication, Renaissance University. Ugbawka, Enugu State confirmed that the popularity of social media among the third world population appears to have more noticeable effect on the global news flow pattern. There is more third more news in the international online news pool. This development seems to be narrowing the quantitative gap in news flow between the developed world and the developing world. But there is more negative online news about developing countries mostly found from social media users in the developing countries. This is worsening the qualitative imbalance in global news flow. They observed various factors including disparity in internet penetration and telecommunication facilities between the developed and developing countries, hamper the chances of social media redressing global the perceived imbalances in global news in global news flow. So, the social media revolution is yet to bridge the quantitative and qualitative gaps in news flow between developed countries and developing countries.

    14. Edegoh, L. O., & Anunike, O. W. (2016). Assessment of social media use for political participation by youths in Anambra State, Nigeria In D. Wilson (ed) Mass Media and the electoral process in Nigeria, 125-138. Uyo: ACCE.

    The scholars, in the department of Mass communication, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam Campus and Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State found that the most and least important political activities of the 2015 General Elections revealed that youths in Anambra State considered electioneering activities of their chosen political candidates as the most important political activity of the said elections. Findings indicate that the least favored political activity of the elections by the youth was the activity to voting card. A lot of youths in Anambra State monitored the campaign rallies of the candidate of their choice with keen interest and followed their candidate’s schedules almost fanatically and on daily basis. Many youths relied on the social media to monitor the day-to-day progress of the electioneering campaigns of their choice candidates and evaluated their candidates’ chances of success of failure in the election based on the candidates’ social media campaign performance. The youths in Anambra State showed little interest in political activities relating to PVC and this may be the reason for the delayed collection of the PVCs in the state.

    15. Nwafor, K. A., Odemelam, C. C., Orji-Egwu, A., Nwankwo, S. U., & Nweze, S. (2013). Social media and political participation in Africa: issues, challenges and prospects In D. Wilson (ed) Communication and the new media in Nigeria (social engagement, political development and public discourse) 64-84. Ota: ACCE.

    The authors, researchers in the department of Mass Communication, Ebonyi State University, and University of Nigeria Nsukka observed that despite the unique features of the technology in political process on the continent, there are still key issues that require close attention if the said benefits must be enduring. The researchers identify one of such issues as the possible metamorphosis of the ‘Arab Spring’ into ‘Africa Spring’ propelled by the increasing force of unregulated social media tools. Among the findings is that the new media are creating ‘moral panic’ in the society. Issues that border anonymity of sources, uneven penetration of the technology, and absence of clear regulation, illiteracy, endemic poverty and systemic corruption on the continent were also identified.

    16. Odishika, E.C. (2018). Contemporary Issues in Nigeria’s International Relations and diplomacy: Implications for international communication In L. Nwodu and I. Onunkwo (ed) Evolving thoughts on international communication, diplomacy and the social media 183-188. Igbariam: COOU.

    The scholar a lecturer at the Novena University Ogune, Delta State noticed, defiance of the Nigerian government to pressure from the powerful West to repeal the gay marriage law is understandable. However, it remains to be seen how the government will manage the diplomatic row that its refusal to repeal the law has engendered, especially its diplomatic relationship with the US. While some scholars of the international relations have advised the Nigerian government to call the bluff of the US and maintain its sovereign right to decide what is best for its citizens in accordance with the popular will; others have called for caution. In any case, it should be noted that the threats of sanctions of Nigeria by the EU and the US on account that the same-sex law amounts to diplomatic blackmail. It goes to typify the viewpoint that power is the main issue in international relations (Akpotor,2006).

    17. Ozuru, E., & Ekeanyanwu, N. T. (2013). Audience assessment on the influence of social media networks on the global news flow controversy In D. Wilson (ed) Communication and the new media in Nigeria (social engagement, political development and public discourse) 85-132. Ota: ACCE.

    The researchers are scholars from the department of Mass Communication, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria. According to their findings Social media networks have considerable influence on the Global News Flow Controversy. Obviously, SMNs have helped to liberalize the process involved in the gathering and dissemination of international news (global flow of news and information). This new media platform also helped to improve access, mass participation, news interactivity, and contemporary flow between the developed and developing societies. They have also the capacity of many professionals and non-professionals alike from the developing societies to counter negative and widespread misrepresentation of the developing nations in the tradition/modern media platforms of the developed nations. In addition to this they also found that beyond the ability to dispel some of these misinterpretations, social media have increased the capacity of developing societies and people to tell their own stories, generate their own news and disseminate same without traditional gate-keeping managed by the developed nations for their selfish and national interest.

    18. Mansell, R. & Nordenstreng, K (2007). Great Media and Communication Debates: WSIS and the MacBride Report. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Information Technologies and International Development, 3, 4, 15–36.

    The authors, researchers at the London School of Economics and Political Science London, United Kingdom and University of Tampere, Finland argued that many of the issues and dilemmas highlighted by the MacBride Report’s authors exist today. Although there has been much talk in the intervening years, there are few signs that international debates and diplomatic mechanisms are fostering the equitable development of the media and communication environment that is so crucial for the emergence of information societies in the twenty-first century. There is a profusion of smaller and larger initiatives aimed at reducing various social and economic inequalities including those associated with the media and communication industries, however, it is unlikely that the new institutional forums that have emerged since the WSIS will be equal to addressing sources of inequality in areas such as governance, enhancing, media diversity, freedom of speech, and human rights. They confirmed that partly as a result of the WSIS dialogue, participants in civil society are becoming better informed about the issues involved.

    19. Weidmann, N. B. (2015). Communication, technology, and political conflict: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Peace Research 2015, Vol. 52(3) 263–268

    The author, researcher in the department of Politics and Public Administration, University of Konstanz confirmed that there is nothing inherently ‘good’ or ‘bad’ about information technology; its effects on conflict and violence depend on the actors using it, the way the use it, and the type of information that is transmitted. This potential simultaneity of different effects creates challenges both for theory and empirical analysis. In many cases, it is difficult to derive theoretical expectations as to why a particular technology would benefit one side more than the other. In other words, we rarely ever have unambiguous hypotheses about the net effect of communication technology. Rather, theoretical models need to take into the fact that technology operates on different sides in a conflict, potentially with opposite effects. By the same token, empirical analyses face difficulties when trying to assess the net effect. One of these challenges is measurement: which conflict actor has access to a particular communication technology, and how far does coverage extend? Depending on the level of detail required for measurement, cooperation with service providers is required, which in turn can raise problems of data access and data sharing.
    20. Pfetsch, B. (2011). Quest editor’s introduction: political communication in the era of new technologies. Central European journal of communication, 2, 189-197.
    The author, researcher in Free University in Berlin, Germany supports the assumption that the high hopes of a new stage of political communication and more democracy through new means of communication have not yet come through. This is particularly obvious as regards campaign communication, and area in which high expectations were fuelled after the successful Obama campaign. Even though the technology has been available in Europe, they seem to be breaking forces that curb the speed and the effects of new technologies. It seems that in European democracies-and even more so in the post communist countries-the new media intensifies and speeds up the already existing development of contemporary political communication for better or worse. Eventually, we may not expect that a new media environment relieves us from the pathologies of political communication that prevailed in the era of “old” of technologies. Instead create an environment of political communication that aggravates the existing problems and complexities. Of course this conclusion has remain rough and it must remain preliminary, since the few studies in this issue do not provide enough detail and evidence for such a far-reaching perspective.
    21. Wilson, D. & Ekpe, E. (2016). An assessment of the campaign messages of Nigeria’s two major political parties during the 2015 general election. In D. Wilson mass media and the electoral process in Nigeria. 165-176. Uyo: ACCE.
    The authors, researchers at the department of Communication Arts, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State and department of Linguistics and Communication Studies, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State noticed that hate speeches were capable of causing problems and creating disunity in country. The Nigerian media code of election coverage in section 4 agrees that ‘Hate speech and other forms of incitement could lead to violence and threaten the democratic fabric of a society.’ In addition, it does not portray the party flag bearers in good light and it also create a negative image of political party involved. It observed that during the 2015 electioneering campaign, General Muhammadu Buhari, the All Progressive Congress (APC) and the Peoples Democratic Party’s (PDPs) spokespersons made hate speeches. Though there is no hate speech directly credited to the People Democratic Party’s flag bearer, Dr. Goodluck Jonathan, it is not also on record that he cautioned or stopped those that made hate speeches on his behalf, especially his wife. It is surprisingly that in spite of it all, no measure violence resulted at the end of the elections. A lot of credit should go to the former president for refusing to make any inciting statements during the counting of votes and thereafter.
    22. Terna, K.J & Bem, N.B. (2007). Mass media technology and politics of international communication in I. Nwosu and O. Soola, Communication in global, ICTs and ecosystems perspectives- insights from Nigeria, 109-115, Enugu: UNN.
    The Mass Communication scholars show that development in mass media technology is at the detriment of the third world countries. The third world countries realized this about four decades ago when they drew attention to imbalance to international communication. As the world was witnessing increased advancement in new information on the communication technologies, the poor third world countries became anxious that the rich Western industrialized countries who already dominated the international communication scene would utilize the new technologies of information storage, retrieval and dissemination for further domination. This anxiety culminated to the call for a new international information and communication order (NIICO). The various conferences organized to advance the NIICO concept highlighted the need for a more balance flow of information internationally and nationally.
    23. Oso, L. (2007). The internet public sphere and democracy in Nigeria. In I. Nwosu and O. Soola, Communication in global, ICTs and ecosystems perspectives- insights from Nigeria, 116-144, Enugu: UNN.
    The author researcher is a seasoned professor of communication argued that just as corporate capitalism was able to incorporate the older media into its network and almost evacuate them of their democratic potential; the internet will almost go the same way. At least for now, the main driving force behind the new ICTs is globalised corporate capitalism and its endless search for profit and hegemony. There is no doubt that the internet removes many of the barriers and filters incapacitating the ‘older’ media as organs of the public sphere. Its potential to equalize access, democratize conversation and enhance action should be noted and acknowledged. But this must be done within the appropriate socio-historical context. The internet and other ICTs are emerging within a context provided by global corporate capitalism.
    24. Enahoro, A. B. (2011). Checking corruption in government: the E-payment and its challenges. Madonna Journal of communication studies, 1, 1, 8-18.
    The researcher confirmed that the area of government business where e-payment is applicable are-payment of salaries of civil servants, payment of contractors for work done and goods and services supplied-, and tax collection and assessment. The extent e-payment has helped to check corruption and economic wastages include- elimination of physical contacts between account officials and contractors with regards to payment-, elimination of ghost workers syndrome -, serving as check against sharp practices in revenue collection processes, engendering less scope for connivance between bank staff and government officials in the diversion of government checks-, bringing government method of assessment up to date in line with the best standard practices for enhanced revenue. The challenges facing the e-payment scheme are- use of many bank applications/switches that do not address the corporate segment-, absence of enabling law to back up e-payment-, individual bias and isolated bank portals and switches not designed for bulk payment.
    25. Odulani, D. (2007). Media Globalization, ICTs and Nigeria development. In I. Nwosu and O. Soola, Communication in global, ICTs and ecosystems perspectives- insights from Nigeria, 198-207, Enugu: UNN.
    The author revealed the yawning gap between what is and what ought to be in terms of Nigeria’s reaction and this position to the outcome of the media globalization, Nigeria cannot be said to be totally indifferent to the unfolding events in the globalized world. By virtue of her size, location in Africa and world’s politics, she however needs to be more proactive in her response to the challenges of globalization. The Federal government should in this regard take a cue from happenings in developing nations like India, Malaysia, and Singapore to not only assert her control over the trans border data being loaded into her spectrum by Western industrialized world, but check the same through the buying, adopting and if possible, ‘stealing’ of the requisite of technology.
    In contrast, some of the researchers in conducted research I ICT and political communication noted that the advancement in communication technology has not only contributed to the dynamism of global politics but also increased the pervasiveness and speed of the new mass media, which is central to global politics and diplomacy, diplomacy that is an integral part of international relations and by extension global politics contrary to what Weidmann, confirmed that there is nothing inherently ‘good’ or ‘bad’ about information technology; its effects on conflict and violence depend on the actors using it, the way the use it, and the type of information that is transmitted. But particularly worried on why a particular technology would benefit one side more than the other which is in consistence with Mansell & Nordenstreng, who argued that many of the issues and dilemmas highlighted by the MacBride Report’s authors exist today. Although there has been much talk in the intervening years, there are few signs that international debates and diplomatic mechanisms are fostering the equitable development of the media and communication environment that is so crucial for the emergence of information societies in the twenty-first century.

    1. Nicely done. Waiting for the remaining ones.

    A paper presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Course MAC 981 (Technological Advances), Department of Mass Communication, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University (COOU), Igbariam, for the award of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Mass Communication.
    Lecturer: Prof. Chinenye Nwabueze.
    DATE: 10/03/18
    • Amobi , I. T. (2013). Bridging the second level digital divide: journalism students, social media and content creation. Journal of multimedia technology and communication studies, vol. 1, No. 1, 84-109. University of Lagos: Department of mass communication.
    The author, a lecturer at the department of mass communication university of Lagos, anchored this work on the social shaping of technology theory and used survey method and focus group discussion (FGD) to examine journalism students of the university of Lagos to determine where they are in relation to proficient use of social media tools and the extent to which they use same for meaningful content creation. The study established that second level digital divide exists among respondents but found it insignificant between young people in the developing and developed countries. The study submitted that the study of social media communication in the developing world, from the creators to users of content should be done in the context of imbalance in the flow of information between the North and South.
    • Akinfeleye, R., Sunday, O., Amobi, I. T. (2013). Citizen journalism: Threat or compliment to traditional journalism. Journal of multimedia technology and communication studies, vol.1, No. 1, 1-23.University of Lagos: Department of mass communication.
    The authors, all faculty members of the department of mass communication, University of Lagos used the content analysis approach to compare citizens journalism, created and nurtured by the new communication technologies, and traditional journalism as practiced in Nigeria. Observing that some see citizen journalism as a threat to traditional journalism and signaling its demise and others dismiss it as largely unprofessional and lacking in depth. After it has examined the coverage of the April 2011 Nigerian elections by Sahara Reporters and This Daylive.Com, the study found a significant divide between the two publications, with Sahara Reprters showing general weakness in adherence to journalistic conventions and editorial procedures. However, much as this study has established general journalistic weaknesses in Sahara Reporters’ journalism practice, it represents only a part of what obtains in citizen journalism. Most citizen journalists are core professionals.
    • Kaul, V. (2012). The changing world of media and communication. The journal of mass communication and journalism. 2:116. doi:10.4172/2165-7912.1000116.
    The author, a faculty member of the department of communication and media at Da-IICT University, Gujarat, India, used historical data to qualitatively analyze the changing world of media and communication. Arguing that we must grasp our present “worlds” as being “mediatized” he showed that the increasing mediation of everything impacts the way we articulate cultures and societies on various levels: our living, community building, politics, religion, entertainment and construction of ethnicity. Tracing the time line of communication technological advancements, and their disruptive tendencies, the author showed that mediatization of “life worlds” is something transmedial; not solely related to mass communication but also include other forms of mediated communication, such as the internet, mobile phones and new forms of intelligent communication. Thus media should be articulated as a cultural centrality. In a very interesting way the author extolled the virtues of globalization and hybridization, quite unlike other fellow third world writers on the topic.
    J Mass Commun Journalism 2:116. doi:10.4172/2165-7912.1000116
    • Lukuman, A. A. (2013). New media and political participation in Nigeria democracy: Analysis of the experience from removal of fuel subsidy. Journal of multimedia technology and communication studies, vol.1, No.1, 24-52.University of Lagos: Department of mass communication.
    The author, a lecture in the department of mass communication, University of Ilorin, used qualitative content analysis and in-depth interview methods to examine the debate among cyber optimists and pessimists as whether the new media have lived up to expectation of enhancing liberal democracy or they have equally degenerated our political process. After examining the contents of some selected online/facebook discussion forums and interviewed a sample of Nigerians cutting across different age brackets, educational, political ethnic, and political orientations, the study found that the new media have provided platforms for strong mobilization, political participation and civic engagement in Nigeria, thereby supporting the cyber optimists’ view that new media is transforming and enhancing liberal democracy. In my opinion this study by this finding has made an important contribution to knowledge of the effect of the social media on society, as it has provided an empirical evidence to support the much debated powerful effect theory of the new media on society.
    • Freeman, B. C., Klapczynsk, J., Wood, E. (2012). Radio and facebook: The relationship between broadcast and social media soft ware in the U.S., Germany, and Singapore. Peer reviewed journal of the internet, vol. 17, No 4.
    The authors used qualitative content analysis method to examine the relationship between U.S., German, and Singaporean radio stations and Facebook, to understand how radio stations present themselves on facebook. Focusing on the range of content covered by senders and recipients of communication encounter, the study found that there is no specific radio-facebook strategy yet. Stations are still experimenting on the basis of trial and error. However the study indicated that literature showed that stations are following a familiar pattern of recycling feeds from other sources- a cost saving tactic of refreshing content, which would otherwise be stale. The work concluded that while the evolution of the radio-facebook marriage continues to evolve, radio continues to look for creative and rewarding ways to connect to their customers through the new service. It is an interesting work that will provoke studies that suggest how traditional media like radio can adapt and cash in on the new media to retain their listeners in the face of the perceived new media onslaught.
    • Janice, B. P. (2001). New Era Trends and Technologies in Foreign Language Learning. Interactive multimedia journal of computer-enhanced learning, vol. 1, No.5
    This study is a review of technological trends and technologies in foreign language learning since the advent of the Web. It indicates that computer-assisted and Web-enhanced language learning is coming of age. Evidence abounds in the changing university curricular patterns; the impressive Internet presence of language faculty; the appearance of new and improved Web research tools, strategies, online reference works and electronic resources; and the development of the advanced multimedia technologies that facilitate cross-cultural communication and collaboration. This paper presented illustrations of these trends, demonstrating that technology-enhanced language learning is enabling a revitalized and more effective pedagogy.
    • Kehinde, A. P. (2013). Self-awareness and global cyber fraud in Lagos: A study of the Cynthia Osokogu saga. Journal of multi-media technology and communication studies, vol. 1, No.1,180-197. University of Lagos: Department of mass communication.
    The author has an M.Sc in journalism from the University of Illinois, Champaign-urbana and the study examined the death of Cynthia Osokogu killed by her facebook friends. It surveyed 63 users of e-mail, chat rooms, message boards, and web sites in Lagos to determine the relationship between social media friendship and socioeconomic security. Using Joseph Luft and Harrinton Ingham’s “Johari Window” theory on inter-personal process as a guide, the study found that there is positive relationship between shared contents among friendly internet users and cyber fraud increase in Lagos, Nigeria. The study recommended among others that users of the internet should be slow to trust information received via the system.

    • Popoola, I. S. ( 2013). An evaluatory discourse on the uses of bulk sms in political campaigns: A study of the Nigerian 2011 general election. Journal of multimedia technology and communication studies, vol. 1, No. 1, 63-83. University of Lagos: Department of mass communication.
    The author, a lecturer in the department of mass communication, University of Lagos, used the in-depth interview method to obtain data from a convenience sample of respondents who are scholars that cut across disciplines in the University of Lagos, to analyze a new dimension to the dissemination of information, political advertising, and campaign through the short message service (sms) of the global system of mobile communication (GSM). The study particularly examined the 2011 general elections, in which various political parties maximally exploited the various opportunities to lobby prospective voters to vote for their candidates. The study found that sms has become a powerful tool of information dissemination. However the paper recommended that concerted efforts should be made by the various regulatory agencies to cub the danger which campaign through sms may constitute to healthy growth and development of democracy in Nigeria.

    • Hudson, R. C., Oboh, G. E. (2012). New media and the Arab spring. Journal of communication and media research, vol. 4, No. 2, 101-118. Abraka: Department of mass communication, Delta state University.
    The authors, both lecturers at the department of media studies University of Derby, England, in this study examined the impact and interplay of news media and social media network sites on the political revolutions and crises that unfolded in North Africa and the Middle East. Anchoring the study on the knowledge gap theory the authors through a qualitative review of the media reports on the revolutions, together with the opinions of experts on Middle East studies evaluated the impact of both old and new media in connection with the increase in the volume of the news and information in society through the activities of online and offline media organizations. The study found that the abuse of human rights; corruption among public officials; and the high rate of unemployment in the region were the three main factors that ignited civil disobedience across the Arab world in 2011. Nevertheless the citizen’s journalism that facilitated the revolutions remains a novelty in many developing nations, including Nigeria.

    • Morah, D. N., Uzochukwu, C. E. (2012). The new media and climate change communication in Nigeria: Sustainability and challenges. Journal of communication and media research,vol.4, No.2, 119-132. Abraka: Department of mass communication, Delta state University.
    Morah and Uzochukwu are from the departments of mass communication Madonna University and Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria respectively. This study, a qualitative conceptual work reflected on the role of the new media in shaping public opinion and influencing policy decisions on environmental sustainability matters. Hinged on the democratic participant and media richness theories, the study discussed the potentials of the social media in climate communication and concluded that lack of information is a militating factor in the fight against the problems associated with climate change.

    • Amobi, I. T., McAdams, M. (2014). Issues and techniques in multimedia and online journalism. Lagos: Concept publications ltd.
    Amobi and MacAdams are journalism lecturers in the departments of mass communication Universities of Lagos and Florida, USA, respectively. Their book is a practical exploration of issues and techniques in multimedia and online journalism. A two section structured text was written to arouse curiosity in media and stimulate further research into the media issues raised. Using the do it yourself approach, first section of the book discussed the elements, tools, contents and choice of media; practical writing for the web; participatory journalism; new media and social networks and their application in the class room and news room. The section also discussed the security, legal and ethical challenges in the new journalism. The second section discussed recent developments in gathering and editing audio, photojournalism, video journalism and skill acquisition for successful multimedia practice. The book presents students and media professionals the online and multimedia techniques they need to make their studies and job process flexible and purposeful.

    • Adeniran, R., Suleiman, H. (2013). Newspaper audience’s use of GSM text messaging for feedback. Journal of communication and media research, vol.5, No.2, 101-104. Abraka: Department of mass communication, Delta state University.
    Adeniran and Suleiman are faculty members of the department of journalism, Lagos state University. Being curious about feedback as a key element in the communication process and the way new technologies are revolutionizing the process by providing easier and more convenient way for people to contribute to mass media, this study guided, by the technological determinism and agenda setting theories sought, to know the theme and purposes of the audience feedback as well as the area of the country where newspaper has the most active audience. The study examined the content of texts messages published on the page “my news.com” created by Punch newspaper for people to share their views and information through mobile phone text messages. The study found that members of the audience who sent in their responses were mostly from Lagos and the South- west region. The messages focused more on governance, suggestions, criticisms and complaints about specific issues.

    • Oyewo, O. O., Oladipupo, A. A. (2031). Text messaging among students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Journal of multimedia and communication studies, vol. 1, No. 1, 130-161. University of Lagos: Department of mass communication.
    Oyewo is a lecturer in the department of communication and language arts, University of Ibadan, Oladipupo is also a lecturer in the department of General studies, Federal Polytechnic, Ede. The study investigated the use of text messaging among the students of federal polytechnic Ede to understand the problems associated with constant use of text messaging and its influence on the users. The study was anchored on the uses and gratification theory and communication accommodation theory and used survey research method. The study found that the students used text messaging to derive the benefits of cost effectiveness, sustenance of interpersonal relationships, maintenance of privacy, acquisition of knowledge and the ability to use text messaging when unable to make calls among others. The study also found that text messaging encourages: examination malpractices, the use of unrecognized shortcuts and abbreviations, laziness to write long essays and letters and non standard form of writing which makes it difficult to read and understand text messages. The study concluded that the errors of spellings, punctuations, abbreviations and tenses that have been noticed in the recent time were largely due to the constant use of text messaging by the students.
    • Temilola, O. (2013). Mobile phone usage among University of Lagos undergraduates, Akoka campus: Socio-demographic implications. Journal of multimedia and communication studies, vol. 1. No 1, 110-129.University of Lagos: Department of mass communication.
    The author, a lecturer in the department of sociology, University of Lagos, used survey to examine the socio-demographic context of mobile phone usage among undergraduates of the University of Lagos. The study was based on the theories of youth culture, modernization and technological determinism. The study found that the youth mobile phone culture is detrimentally negative on youths’ academic activity. Its misuse adversely impacts their behavior as well as generates more disturbances of public space. The study concludes that the abuse to which the studens put mobile phone negatively influences their academic activities and generates ills of social behavior such as criminality. The study recommended social policy guides by the school authority for mobile phone usage among the students.

    • Barry W., Caroline, H. (2008) Ed. The internet in everyday life. New York: John Wiley& Sons.
    Caroline Haythornthwaite is a faculty member at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, while Barry Wellman is the head of the University of Toronto’s NetLab. Their edited book, “The Internet in Everyday Life”, a 624 page book, is said to be, by the publisher, the first book to systematically investigate how being online fits into people’s everyday lives. The book opened up a new line of inquiry into the social effects of the Internet. It focused on how the Internet fits into everyday lives, rather than considering it as an alternate world. Chapters were contributed by leading researchers in the in information technology. The studies gave birth to the book were based on empirical data collection methods. The book talked about the reality of being online now, not hopes or fears about the future effects of the Internet.

    1. I see 14 jobs here. Nicely done but came in pretty late. As usual, you were thorough in your analysis of the findings. You have always given intelligent presentations in outdoor quizzes. Well done.
      But hold on o! Are you a scholar from the future? How come you reviewed a work ‘published’ in the year 2031? Oh my God! Are you from the future?
      “Oyewo, O. O., Oladipupo, A. A. (2031). Text messaging among….??!!”
      Na wa o!

      1. I stand corrected sir. It is Oyewo, O. O., Oladipupo, A. A.(2013). Text messaging among…

        I am so sorry sir. Thanks.

  8. Continuation of the Annotated Bibliography
    1.Abdulrauf-Salau, A. (2013). Twitter news source to select audiences In D. Wilson, (ed) Communication and the new media in Nigeria, 189-211. Ota: ACCE.
    The researcher at the Department of Mass Communication, University of Ilorin, Nigeria showed that audience members are not passive consumers of the media. Rather, the audience has power over media consumption and assumes an active role in interpreting and integrating media into their own lives as the introduction of social media has provided another outlet for people to use and seek gratification through those sources. Based on the models developed by Katz, blumler, Gurevitch and Lasswel, individuals can chose to stake out media in one outlet, all fallen within the prescribed categories of needs. The only difference now, is that the followers do not have to go to multiple media outlets to fulfill each of their needs has created a digital library, allowing individuals to have access to contents from various mass media outlets. This shows that audience members are inclined to select media that offer them more uses and gratifications.
    2. Ihejirika, W. C., Mbazie, S., & Ndinojuo, B. C. (2007). Use of social media by political parties in Nigeria: An analysis of facebook and twitter. International journal of communication: An interdisciplinary journal of communication studies, 16, 16-36.
    The authors’ researchers at the department of Linguistics and Communication Studies, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, observed that social media applications are now incorporated in the publicity and public relations affairs by most political parties in Nigeria. However, a comparative analysis of the Nigerian political parties with other parties from some Western countries on the usage and fellowship on social media showed that the effort in Nigeria is still very low. It could be reasoned that the low level activity and patronage of the political parties in Nigeria could be due to the fact that 2013 and 2014 were not electioneering years in the country. But then, it must be noted that the essence of political campaigns are not only to win voters during elections, but also to maintain loyal supporters as well as win new members. The essence of social media is interactivity-between members and outside.
    3.Ekwueme, A. C., & Okpoko, C. (2007). Media strategies for eliminating political violence and assassinations in Nigeria. International journal of communication: An interdisciplinary journal of communication studies, 16, 79-93.
    The researchers at the department of Mass Communication, University of Nigeria Nsukka, concluded that the political violence and assassinations cannot be justified, whatever the reason for spilling of blood during election can be considered being criminal, that is why they portray the country in bad light in the international community. The country had more than enough spilling of blood during the civil war. As it is now, the Boko Haram terrorists are adding immeasurably to the rivers of blood flowing in the country. Politicians should therefore; spare the people further agony by being tolerant of opposition and playing by the rules. The mass media should, however, play their own roles to achieve this objective.
    4. Ricke, L. D. (2013). The public versus CNN: agenda setting and the Youtube presidential debates in the United States. Journal of communication and media research 2, 1, 67-92.
    The researcher an assistant professor of Mass Communication Sam Houston State University Huntsville stated that as the media environments continue to converge, it will be necessary to rethink the way the media agendas are established. It is no longer simply opinion leaders and media conglomerates setting the agendas rather it is these entities selecting members of the public. As the political internet continues to evolve, understanding the foundations and issues of agenda setting and opinion creation will remain relevant topics of investigation. The results of this study indicated that this convergence makes it more difficult for the traditional notions of agenda setting to hold firm.
    5. Chukwuma, N. A. (2011). Public enlightenment impact on the use of ICT in Nigeria. Madonna journal of communication studies, 1, 1, 210-222.
    The author researcher at Madonna Univerity, Okija Anambra State Nigeria submitted that the nature of information and its flow is very fast. Planning, therefore, should no longer done by a few persons. The ICT has led to more openness and less secrecy in decision making in business and even in politics. An important point to remember about ICT is that, changing the way people work can be extremely threatening. It also takes a great deal of investment in training, information dissemination and preparation. The transformation process determines the success of failure of the applied ICT. When an organization takes a long term strategic view, problems associated with ICT can be minimized
    6. Ya’u, H. A. & Nababa, G. S. (2016). Political slogan, logos and ideologies: political symbolism and campaign in kano Transport literature. Journal of communication and media research, 8, 2, 34-47.
    The scholars at Bayero University Kano and Ph.D. candidate at the same University found that political transport literature in Kano is an important tool of political communication aimed at persuasion and it is substantially used as a contemporary medium to conventional mass media during the 2015 electioneering. They concluded the conducts of studies that will measure the impact or effects of the political transport literature in the voting behavior of the electorate. The substantial use of public transport vehicles by government, institutions, corporate organizations and civil society organizations for socio-economic, political and cultural communications should equally be investigated.
    7. Nwodu, L. C. & Fab-Ukozor, F. T. (2017). New Communication Technologies and global information flow-realities and options for developing countries In L. Nwodu & I. Onunkwor (ed), Evolving thoughts on International communication, diplomacy and social media , 88-95. Igbariam: COOU.
    The researchers at the department of Mass Communication Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University and Mass Communication department, Imo State University Owerri submitted that in spite of the energies and the resources dissipated in the NWICO debates, the state of international communication has remained the same in terms of imbalance, flow and inequalities in relation to access to communication technologies. The gamut of communication technologies already mentioned here which have deepened rather than lessened the burden can as well, be used to solve the problem. Thus, any expectation by the South that the West will suddenly stop further production of NCTs or change the pattern of news statement in a manner that will be favorably to the South will be asking for the moon. To also expect that the NCTs by their very nature can bring about a U-turn in the world information flow pattern is quite a tall order. How can NCTs impact positively on global information flow? It is our firm belief that the critical element in bringing about the correction of the imbalance in the information flow system are between issues of application of and access to communication technologies.
    8. Agbanu, V. N. & Ezekwelu, K. C. (2018). Wire service and satellite TV in international news flow and public diplomacy in L. Nwodu & I. Onunkwor (ed), Evolving thoughts on International communication, diplomacy and social media , 96-106. Igbariam: COOU.
    The scholars at the department of Mass Communication Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University and a senior special assistant media to the governor government house concluded that because of the advancement in technology, the information gap among nations is being closed up; and communication plays a very important role in all these. Right from the19th century scramble and partition of Africa, through the era of the cold war to that of the satellite broadcasting, the intension was for the technologically- developed countries of the world, to effect public diplomacy through the dominance of the rest of the world, and the fostering of their ideology through international news. These nations in an effort to tilt public opinion and effect public diplomacy scramble to control the news flow to the less developed nations. Though most of these developing countries claim to be politically independent, there is the fear that most of them are still under foreign control as they consume media content produced from these developed nations, a situation that not only influence their world view but determines their perception of the West.
    9. Nnaemeka, F. O. & Nwokeocha, I. M. (2018). News agencies and global news flow in 21st century in L. Nwodu & I. Onunkwor (ed), Evolving thoughts on International communication, diplomacy and social media, 107-115. Igbariam: COOU.
    The findings of the authors from the department of Mass Communication Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University revealed that almost all the major news agencies in the world today have adopted to the social media. Giant wire services like Reuters, AP, AFP, Lusa, CTK, DPA, TT, Belga, STT, PA, EFE, ANP all have facebook and twitter account with which they connect with millions of subscribers around the world. Twitter has become the most important social medium adopted by news agencies and indeed the online media. According to Souman (2012), the strength of twitter lies in its asymmetric way of communication. Organizations may flow a few chosen account while they are followed by thousands of users worldwide. This asymmetry makes twitter an attractive tool by which news organization can disseminate news. Overall, it can be said the core traditional function of news agencies is not altered by the social media.
    10. Ezeoke, C. B. & Asak, M. O. (2018). Social media: balancing or furthering the imbalance in global news flow? In L. Nwodu & I. Onunkwor (ed), Evolving thoughts on International communication, diplomacy and social media, 116-130. Igbariam: COOU.
    Using the world system theory, the researchers at the department of Mass Communication Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University and department of Communication Faculty of Humanities and social Sciences, North West University South Africa concluded that the social media have obviously come to stay. They can only metamorphose into something bigger by innovations in the technology. For this reason, nations especially developing countries must adopt and keep pace with the technology to stall further imbalance in global news flow. However, developing countries cannot do this by themselves. They will seek for foreign aids in the form of infrastructure, technological knowledge in human capital and software development among others. They finally submitted that though social media mode of communication is valuable and inevitable in the present media landscape and have given a voice to developing nations in the international sphere, its growing influence as an integrated tool with core media systems and governments of global news flow is worrisome.
    11. Obianyo, N. E. (2009). Reconstructing the state in Africa: good governance, market reform and virtual governance-the experience of Nigeria. Nigerian journal of International affairs, 35, 1, 9-40.
    The researcher at the department of Political Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria noted that globalization has been accompanied by the proliferation of international agreement that cover and greatly expand the rights of international investors while not recognizing and thus greatly reducing the authority of host governments and countries. These agreements, is one of which is the Multilateral Agreement on Investment, MAI, have largely rendered developing countries pliable to control and exploitation by foreign capital. MAI requires all member countries to relax restrictions on export and imports and to demolish trade barriers. It offers unfettered freedom to foreign investors in matters of profit repatriation and even the right to challenge any discriminatory laws of the host country in local courts or before World Trade Organizations (WTO).
    12. Onuoha, J. (2009). The state and economic reforms in Nigeria: an exploratory note on the capture theory of politics. Nigerian journal of International affairs, 35, 1, 41-60.
    The author the director, Centre of American Studies, CAST, University of Nigeria Nsukka concluded that the analysis so far demonstrates the fact that the major reason Nigeria’s economy has defiled all attempts, revamp and sustain it, is due to the “clash of the titans”, the nationalists and the reformists. This endless struggle to capture the soul of the Nigerian economy has made continuity impossible and the economy could never be sustained without continuity of programs. While the clash goes on, no attention is paid to the welfare of masses. It is a game of the winner must take all. This explains while the reform cannot be implemented with a human face. It also explains while the collapse of infrastructure has become normal. Thus, as the struggle for the soul of the Nigerian economy goes on, the masses groan as the economic crisis worsens.
    13. Okolie, A. M. (2009). The state, electoral fraud and illusion of participatory democracy in Africa: lessons from the 2007 general election in Nigeria. Nigerian journal of International affairs, 35, 1, 61-78.
    The author at the department of Political Science, University of Nigeria Nsukka predicated his analysis on some basic propositions that the study, among others noted that electoral fraud is pervasive and becoming a norm in the electoral process and underscored the fact that participatory democracy has remained elusive following the unabashed and rapacious manifestation of the electoral process by few economic notables masquerading as political leaders. These elements ascribe the attributes of the state unto themselves and brazenly determine the outcome of elections by reckless and unguided application of the apparatus of the state to commit criminality and fraud in the process. Democracy and good governance have remained elusive as the ballot box has become a metaphor for disempowerment. Popular participation in governance has waned to near irretrievability; and the increasing frustration and anguish have combined to kill the spirit voting and political participation.
    14. Odubajo, A. (2009). Restructuring Nigeria’s executive power composition: lessons from Switzerland. Nigerian journal of International affairs, 35, 1, 79-100.
    The author the researcher at the department of Political Science, University of Lagos Nigeria found out that in direct-democratic practices: there must be a renewed commitment to direct democracy. The simpler benefit of giving a voice to the people in their own affairs pales into relevance, the logistical challenges for operating direct-democracy in a country like Nigeria. Electoral reforms with utmost urgency, the electoral process must be reformed. Nigeria’s electoral process has always been scandalous and controversial, most often inept, thereby producing terribly flawed elections. It is only a proven guarantee of credible elections, conducted in a free, fair and just manner that can sustain and deepen Nigeria’s democratic processes.
    15. Ayinde, A. F. (2009). Asymmetrical dyads in Afro-Asian Nexus: a theoretical exploration of Japan –African relations. Nigerian journal of International affairs, 35, 1, 121-140.
    The researcher at the department of Political Science and International Relations, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria attempted a modest application of asymmetrical dyads theory to explain Japan-African relations by using pooled cross-sectional time series data and found that contrary to the prediction of the theory, foreign policy behavior of sampled African states towards Japan was positively correlated to the relative economic strength an concentration linkages. The foreign policy behavior was generally expansive which corresponds with reinforcement objective. It exemplifies a situation in which low level of linkage concentration combine with weak economic condition to produce a desire for expansion in foreign policy behavior in line with prediction of the theory.
    In contrast, some of the authors in ICT, political communication and NWICO, bemoaned the way the imbalance in news flow is becoming worrisome, scholars like Agbanu, Ezeoke, Obianyo among others, some emphasized that the imbalance is not only affecting the information flow but transcends to economy and politics as Onuoha, submitted that this endless struggle to capture the soul of the Nigerian economy has made continuity impossible and the economy could never be sustained without continuity of programs.

    1. This is good effort. Noted and graded.


    Being a paper presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements
    for Course MAC 981 (Technological Advances), Department of Mass
    Communication, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University (COOU),
    Igbariam for the award of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Mass

    Lecturer: Dr. Chinenye Nwabueze


    Tony Onyima

    March, 2018

    1. Sanditov, Bulat (2004) “ICT Revolution, Globalization and
    Informational Lock-in.”Working Papers Series “Growth and
    Employment in Europe: Sustainability and Competitiveness”, 39.
    Inst. für Volkswirtschaftstheorie und -politik, WU
    Vienna University of Economics and Business, Vienna.

    The authors examined a model of social learning in networks following the lines of Bala and Goyal (1998, 2001). As a model of agents’ behavior, the authors chose the model of informational cascades of Bikhchandani et al (1992). Similarly to Bala and Goyal, they found that the higher the ‘degree of integration’ within the society is, the more likely it is that conformity of actions will arise. However, unlike Bala and Goyal’s results, the authors’ chosen model suggested that in the presence of informational externalities (globalization) of informational flows, expressed in the increasing density of communication channels in a network, may drive down the expected social welfare.

    2. Syeda H. A., Syeda T. Fabiha. (2017) “Empowering Women Entrepreneurs

    through Information and Communication Technology (ICT): A Case
    Study of Bangladesh”. Management, Vol. 7 No. 1, 2017, pp. 1-6.
    doi: 10.5923/j.mm.20170701.01.

    Syeda H. A and Syeda T. H are academics at the BGMEA University of Fashion and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh. In this paper the authors investigated and analyzed how ICTs benefit women entrepreneurs to keep a running improvement in women empowerment in Bangladesh. This article also evaluated the current collaboration between the women entrepreneurs and ICTs in Bangladesh as a developing country. The role of entrepreneurship is imperative for developing any country. In most developing countries, women are deprived of their rights. There is this erroneous concept that women can only manage their homes. The rate of literate of women is very low. However, today’s women are more conscious about their rights. The number of educated women is also increasing day by day. Entrepreneurship is a precious tool for empowering women. The authors conclude that the age of globalization and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) offer vast opportunities for the empowerment of women entrepreneurs.

    3. Lemna, A. A. (1999) “The Impact of New Information Technology in
    Africa.”Information Development, 15, no. 3 (1999): 167-170.

    The author examined the usual opportunities and challenges thrown by new technologies such as wider access to research opportunities, distance learning, appropriate content and access to hardware. The main barrier identified is the absence of national information policies. The author recommended the formulation of these policies and suggested that external support should be sought to develop ‘information network infrastructures’ in Africa.

    4. Butcher, N. (1998) “The Possibilities and Pitfalls of Harnessing ICTs
    to Accelerate Social Development: A South African Perspective”.
    Johannesburg: South African Institute for Distance Education,

    The author identified centres on education in South Africa as a key developmental activity and suggested that the repetition of rhetorical statements on the developmental potential of ICTs has started to ring hollow, raising more questions than answers. Butcher outlined what he considers to be the key features and processes of South African society with respect to ICTs, such as their use to support education and training. He found that, in South Africa, in order to harness the potential of ICTs a lot of emphasis has been put on the concept of community centres as a strategy for implementation. He suggested that more resources should be spent on opening up access to marginalized communities in innovative and cost-effective ways; otherwise ICTs serve only to perpetuate greater economic and educational marginalization. The key lessons learned are outlined to ensure that future initiatives build on these experiences rather than repeating costly and educationally pointless exercises.

    5. Chisenga, J. (1999) “Global Information Infrastructure and the
    Question of African Content”. Paper presented at the 65th IFLA
    Council and General Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 20-28 August

    How can African countries make a meaningful contribution to the development of African local content in the absence of African information and cultural content in the global information infrastructure? The creation of relevant content is important for encouraging access to the Internet. Although activities or projects are being implemented, covering local information content on websites, creating subject-based information gateways, creating electronic data- bases, digitization of artefacts, and indigenous language orientation, these are often small and poorly coordinated. In summary, Chisenga insisted in this paper that African government web sites should not concentrate on generating information targeted at potential foreign investors but should also provide information for local users and find ways to encourage publications in indigenous languages.

    6. Galadinma, J. D., and Enighie, J. (2003) “Foreign Technology as a
    Major Impediment to the Growth of Local Broadcast Media Industry
    in Nigeria” in Nwosu I. E. Polimedia: Media and Politics in
    Nigeria, Enugu: Prime Targets Limited.

    Among many other factors, the authors explored how foreign information communication technologies (ICTs) have impeded the growth of broadcast media industry in Nigeria. Arguing that technologies are produced according to the images and cultural values of producer-nations, the authors identified factors that have made it difficult for developing countries like Nigeria to adapt into the globalizing world. Lack of appropriate skills, rapid obsolescence of equipment and lack of coherent cultural and communication policies, according to the authors, are some of the inhibiting factors. To overcome these impediments, the authors submitted that developing countries should adapt these technologies to suit African environment. However, developing countries they cautioned “must learn with an analytical and critical eye, not blindly, and we must not copy anything indiscriminately and transplant mechanically”.

    7. Abayomi, S. O., (2003) “Globalization and the Anglo-American Consumer
    Protection and Movement: Challenges Before Nigeria in the
    21st Century in Nwosu I. E. Polimedia: Media and Politics
    in Nigeria, Enugu: Prime Targets Limited.

    Tracing the origin of consumerism, the author, a lecturer at the Department of Mass Communication, University of Lagos explored the impact of globalization, which is fuelled by technological advances on consumers in Nigeria in particular. Drawing heavily from American, European and British experiences, the author contended that there is no visible public supported consumer movement in Nigeria in the face of pervasive influence of globalization. With growing use of packaged foods, outbreak of diseases and the increasing globalization of the sources of our food supply, the author called for a watchful movement that will protect unaware and innocent Nigerian consumers. To buttress his submission, the author gave the classical examples of the Koko toxic waste of 1988 and the recent controversial Trovan-Floxarin experimental drug that was administered on some Crerbro Spinal Menengetis (CSM) patients by Pfizer.

    8. Hayward, J., (2018) “Artificial Intelligence Technology (Deepfakes)
    Raises Propaganda, Identity Theft and National Security Concerns”
    national-security-concerns/amp/ Retrieved
    on 12/03/2018

    Published in the American right-wing Breitbart, Hayward in the article drew the attention of the world to the present and imminent danger of artificial intelligence (A.I) technology. Even in its infancy, he argued that A.I has the power to ruin lives and perhaps destabilize nations adding that it has already raised concerns about the use of propaganda, identity theft and national security. Relying on a recent New York Times article and study published by Cambridge University, Hayward observed that the power of artificial intelligence is truly a double-edged sword because it can automate mischief and destruction, as well. The Cambridge researchers worried about A.I. systems spreading chaos by manufacturing propaganda and disinformation, and the New York Times piece on deepfakes echoes precisely those concerns. Deepfakes are one of the newest forms of digital media manipulation, and one of the most obviously mischief-prone. “It’s not hard to imagine this technology’s being used to smear politicians, create counterfeit revenge porn or frame people for crimes. Lawmakers have already begun to worry about how deepfakes could be used for political sabotage and propaganda”, Hayward contended. His thesis is that humanity may be courting disastrous consequences in her extreme deployment of technology particularly in a rapidly globalizing world.

    9. Hornigold, T., (2018)”New Malicious Artificial Intelligence Report
    Outlines Biggest Threats of the Next Five Years”
    outlines-biggest-threats-of-the-next-5-years/amp/ Retrieved on

    Everyone’s talking about deep fakes, the audio-visual imitations of people generated by increasingly powerful networks, which will soon be indistinguishable from the real thing. Politicians are regularly laid low by scandals that arise from audio-visual recordings. You could easily, today or in the very near future, create a forgery that might be indistinguishable from the real thing. What would that do to politics? How do we solve the problem? This and other related issues are what Hornigold addressed in this insightful article. The looming issue of deep fakes is just one of the biggest threats he identified in the next five years. The report, which has co-authors from the Future of Humanity Institute and the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk (among other organizations).
    They limited their focus to the technologies of the next five years. Some of the concerns the report explored are enhancements to familiar threats: automated hacking can get better, smarter, and algorithms can adapt to changing security protocols. “Phishing emails,” where people are scammed by impersonating someone they trust or an official organization could be generated en masse and made more realistic by scrapping data from social media. If A.I. algorithms enable every phishing scam to become sharper in this way, more people are going to get gouged. Then there are novel threats that come from our own increasing use of and dependence on artificial intelligence to make decisions.

    10. Terna, K. J., and Bem, M. B. (2007), “Mass Media Technology and
    Politics of International Communication”, in Nwosu I. E and
    Soola O. E. (eds),Communication in Global, ICTs & Ecosystem
    Perspectives – Insights from Nigeria, Enugu: Precision
    Publishers Limited.

    The potentials and actual power of mass media technologies have significant implications for the images of nations, especially the Third Word nations, many of which may again be by-passed by the latest developments in communication technology. Advances in new media technologies now make it possible for an extensive and intensive coverage of developing countries by the international media. The new technologies, the authors contended, have consequences as they portend both danger and promises as it concerns the developing countries, more danger than good. Information superhighway, largely represented by the Internet is not the panacea for all communication problems today. According to the authors, “it holds great promise for linking many parts of the world. Unfortunately for the developing countries, the increased ease of global communication brought about by ICTs has not reduced the quantity and intensity of negative news about them. To solve this problem, the authors joined many other scholars to recommend that developing countries should build strong economic base, attain political stability and maintain a strong unity.

    11. Ufuophu-Biri, E. (2007), “Influence of Globalization and the ICTs on
    the Nigerian Mass Media”, in Nwosu I. E and Soola O. E. (eds),
    Communication in Global, ICTs & Ecosystem Perspectives –
    Insights from Nigeria, Enugu: Precision Publishers Limited.

    From the first newspaper, Iwe Irohin, which was produced with crude printing machine, the author traced the technological advances from the pre-mechanical era to the present electronic age and how they have influenced the Nigerian mass media. Information and communication technologies, he posited, have played significant role in the operation of the Nigerian mass media. ICTs have simplified the hitherto complicated production process and satellite has made news most instantaneous and simultaneous. The author noted that the Nigerian mass media is catching up with the explosive information and communication technologies. He recommended that the mass media should invest heavily in ICTs development and acquisition in order to be part of the globalizing community.

    12. Wilson, E. J., (1998) “Globalization, Information Technology and
    Conflicts in the Second and Third Worlds: A Critical Review of
    the Literature” New York:Rockefeller Brothers Fund Inc.

    The information revolution, ethno political conflicts, and globalization – each of these three mega-trends is individually redefining the global context within which governments and citizens must make daily decisions in the years to come. Thus, their intersection should constitute a central concern of scholars, policy makers, and citizens.
    This intersection is the subject of this essay. Specifically, the author asked: “What is the impact of globalized information and communications technology and services on the politics and society of developing countries, especially on the issues of conflict and cooperation?” To answer this admittedly huge and unwieldy question, he carefully examined a wide range of literatures across a variety of research fields, scholarly disciplines and geographic areas of the world. He contacted scholars and research units on several continents in search of annotated or critical bibliographies on Information Technology (IT) and society. The author was disappointed to discover how modest was the literature that actually analyzed these issues carefully and sought to measure their impacts. This essay by contrasts concentrated on defining and identifying societal impacts. Regrettably, there are barely a handful of bibliographies of any kind (Marien, 1996). Thus, this is one of the first such bibliographic essays on this subject. It is intended to help others work their way through this growing and important area by providing a bird’s eye view of the critical themes within, and links across, these various literatures.

    13. Agudosy, F. I. (2007), “Religion and Information Communication
    Technologies in the Modern World”, in Nwosu I. E and Soola O. E.
    (eds), Communication in Global, ICTs & Ecosystem Perspectives –
    Insights from Nigeria, Enugu: Precision Publishers Limited.

    In his increasing quest for the improvement of his well-being, man relies on religion for his salvation and science for daily survival. This situation has made man not to be satisfied with the multiple and ever reverberating intensity of information about himself here in the world as well as his position in the life to come. It makes no sense talking about the saving of the soul when the primary thing – man’s humanity that suffers fro atrophy, has not been taken care of. It is in a bid to save man’s humanity that ICTs have provided avenues for man to receive far great information about himself and how to solve his problems. This trend has created tension between religion and science and technology that brought about ICTs. In this paper, the author explored the impact of ICTs on religion in the modern world and proffered solution on how the negative influences of ICTs should be adequately managed.

    14. West, D. and Heath, D. (2011) “Theoretical Pathways to the Future:
    Globalization, ICTs and Social Work Theory”. Journal of
    Social Work, Vol. 11, Issue 2: 209-221.

    Society has changed substantially and rapidly with the advent of globalization where technology is both a catalyst for and a response to globalization. Concurrently and connected to these trends has been the advent of neo-liberalism, new managerialism and postmodernism. Globalization, technological change and neo-liberalism underpin and are driven by each other in a continual cycle. This rapidly changing globally connected and technologically based society is the context for clients and social workers alike. This article explores the connections between globalization, ICT and neo-liberalism. This forms the basis for critical reflection on theories, models and modes of practice in light of the changing context allowing a proactive response to the challenges that face the profession and our clients. To remain relevant, the authors advised that social work needs to continue to influence systems for the benefit of society while reviewing and updating theories and models to reflect current lifestyles, modes and patterns of communication and the impact of globalization.

    15. Barrett, M. and Scott, S. (2004). “Electronic Trading and the
    Process of Globalization in Traditional Futures Exchange: A
    Temporary Perspective. European Journal of Information Systems.
    Vol. 13, Issue 1: 65-79

    This paper developed a temporal perspective to examine the adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and processes of globalization. The foundations of our theoretical approach explicitly draw upon three intersecting planes of temporality implicit in structuration; namely reversibility, irreversibility and institutionalization. The authors developed their theoretical perspective by extending the scope of structuration to incorporate temporal features of Adam’s social theory on ‘global time’. They then used this temporal perspective to examine the emergence of electronic trading and the process of globalization across London and Chicago futures exchanges. Their analysis provided insights into the IT-enabled reconfiguration of these exchanges during processes of reproduction and change associated with globalization. They concluded with some key implications for e-trading strategy and considered changes in trader work life associated with the adoption of e-trading.

    1. Neatly and gracefully done. Well done.

    A paper presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Course MAC 981 (Technological Advances), Department of Mass Communication, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University (COOU), Igbariam, for the award of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Mass Communication.
    Lecturer: Prof. Chinenye Nwabueze.
    DATE: 14/03/18
    Hacket , R. I. J.(1998). Charismatic/Pentecostal Appropriation of Media Technologies in Nigeria and Ghana. Journal of African religion in Africa, 258-277.http//:DOI: 10.2307/1581571
    The author is of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA. The study sought to know how religious collectivities which were predicated on words generate images of themselves in the highly competitive religious market-place of many African urban spaces today. Focusing on Christian charismatic and Pentecostal movements, the study used qualitative data and explored how and why these movements were favoring electronic media as suitable sites of the transmission of their teaching and erecting of their empires. The study showed that the use of electronic media by these groups resulted in the transformation of the religious landscape at least in two ways: one, they facilitated transnational and homogenizing cultural flow; two, they took the connections between these movements and the networks they created to new global level. The study concluded that the use of the media was clearly a tool of expansion, a reelection of globalizing aspiration.
    Kirik, A. m., Arslan, A., Centinkaya, A., Gul, M. (2015). A quantitative research on the level of media addiction among young people in Turkey. International journal of science, culture and sports, 108,http//:Doi : 10.14486/IntJSCS444.
    Authors are faculty members of Marmara University faculty of communication, Istanbul, Turkey This study aimed to determine the level of social media addiction in young people in Turkey, and to suggest prevention mechanism of the addiction. Survey research was used in the study. The addiction factor of the Social Networking Status Scale was used as a data collection tool. The study was conducted on 271 students between the ages of 13-19 and found that gender (t=0.406; P>0.05) made no significant difference in social media addiction while the factors of age (F=6.256; P<0.05), daily time spent on the Internet (F=44.036; P<0.05) and daily frequency of visiting social media profiles (F=53.56; P<0.05) made significant differences in addiction level. The results showed that low addiction level of 14-year group increased with age up to 17 years, and the level decreased in 18-year group. Social media addiction level showed a dramatic increase also in the case of daily time spent on the Internet and more frequent daily visits to social media.

    http//:Doi : 10.14486/IntJSCS444

    Aday, S., Farrel, H., Lynch, M., Sides, J., Freelon, D. (2012). Blogs and bullets II: New media and conflicts after the Arab spring. United States Institute of Peace (USAIP),Washington DC.

    This report by researchers at United States Institute of peace (USAIP), Washington, DC used qualitative evidence to re-evaluate the claims made in Blogs and Bullets I (2010) in light of the Arab Spring, arguing that the causal role of new media needs to be supported by compelling empirical data. The previous study distilled five levels of analysis (individual attitudes and behaviors, societal connections and divided, collective action, regime repression and international attention), which were revisited in this study, generating supporting evidence from the Arab Spring. The report outlined three ways in which new media could be refined and improved, namely: paying attention to the failures of social media rather than the existing singular focus on the successes of social media in conflict scenarios; giving attention to cases where new media had failed to generate a substantial movement; and that researchers needed to ask small questions rather than questions such as ‘what caused the Arab Spring?’ that were too big to be reasonably answered. The study cautioned that it is important to remember that tyrants tweet too, that much of the research to date had focused on how the uprisings were diffused throughout the Arab region, neglecting the role of new media as a form of contagion. The report concluded that social media’s key function is to bridge information from activists to the mass public, to bridge user-generated content and mainstream media, and to bring local struggles to the attention of the international community.


    Allan, D., Brown, C. (2012). “The Mavi Mammara at the frontlines of web 2.0”. The journal of Palestinian studies, vol. 40, no.1, 63-77.

    The study used content analysis to review the YouTube responses to the Israeli Defence Forces’ (IDF) raid on the Mavi Marmara. The study examined social media and viral videos as sites of proxy Israel-Palestine conflict. The researchers anchored the study on uses and gratification theory and examined the use of social media sites by the Israeli state – the creation of IDF YouTube channels and recruitment of ‘Internet warfare teams’ – as a PR strategy. Conversely, the study explored how activists and academics can use social media to counter these state narratives. This study classified social media (also referred to as‘web 2.0’) as YouTube, blogs, Wikipedia, Facebook, Twitter and ‘any media platform that allowed instant self-publication. This study concluded by critiquing the assumption that social media has a ‘leveling, democratization effect on the political landscape. Counter to these assumptions, it argued that social media had the power to ‘…evolve assimilate to power and capital, be assimilated by power and capital, transform; and anyone, regardless of ideology, can master it at any given time’, with social media acting as a medium rather than as the message.

    Al-Ani, B., Mark, G., Seamaan, B. (2010). Blogging through conflicts: sojourners in the age of social media, proceedings on the 3rd international conference on intercultural corroborations, pp. 29-38.

    This study by scholars from Iraq National University reported ‘a qualitative content analysis of the nature of interactions that emerged in a blog community whose members were experiencing the impacts of ongoing conflict’. The Iraqi blogging community was studied, with a focus on the role of intercultural interactions in shaping people’s experiences of conflict and sense making of their experiences. Blogs were explored in this study as a unique, interactive aspect of social media through which writers were able to create unrestricted narratives (in contrast to Twitter or Facebook which require shorter posts).142 blog entries were categorized (in accordance with schema developed by Herring et al) as: Journalistic, such as accounts relating to events outside a blogger’s personal experience; Personal diaries and/or war diaries, such as personal accounts of a blogger’s activity; Art blogs, such as longer entries of either personal or impersonal in nature. 290 comments associated with these blogs were then categorized as either supportive, encouraging, sympathetic, advice, admiration, informative or critical. Blogs were further coded as being Iraqi or non-Iraqi. The study concluded that intercultural interactions aided people’s experiences of crisis or conflict by providing support, finding commonality, building a knowledge base, and in giving advice on the restoration of infrastructure. It also found that bloggers and followers demonstrated examples of multiculturalism as well as adaptation to a new culture via assimilation, acculturation, cultural maintenance or becoming a sojourner.


    Al-Maskati, N. A. (2012). Newspaper coverage of 2011 protests in Egypt. National communication gazette, vol. 74, no. 4, 342-366.

    This study examined the newspaper coverage of the 2011 Egyptian protests and their interactions
    with the social media. The study examined the role of social media in influencing the mainstream media’s coverage of events through a content analysis across the newspapers: Al Ahram, Arab News, China Daily, Guardian International, International Herald Tribune and Jerusalem Post. Information was collected across five parameters – (i) word count;(ii) number of stories published on front pages; (iii) rank and political orientation of people cited in stories; (iv) number of times social media was cited; and (v) how many times keywords (revolution, chaos, human rights, corruption and social media) and their synonyms were portrayed in stories. The study found that national policies, diplomatic relations and geographic proximity played large role in determining the type and intensity of coverage provided by newspapers. It also found that journalists demonstrated a clear preference for conventional sources rather than social media stories in their coverage.


    Aouragh, M., Alexander, A. (2011). The Egyptian experience: Sense and nonsense of the internet revolution. International journal of communication, vol.5, 1344-1358.

    This study based on qualitative research method examined the role of the Internet in mobilizing for political and social change through an exploration of the Egyptian revolution. The researchers distinguished between the Internet as a tool for bringing about change from below, and the Internet as a space for the articulation of collective dissent. This study derived data from fieldwork conducted during January-March 2011 including interviews with Egyptian activists, observations of Facebook groups, blogs, social media, other media outlets and observations from Tahrir Square. Social media (or web 2.0) was explored as a tool appropriated by activists despite attempts by the state to use them for counterrevolutionary purposes. The study rejected the polarization of utopian and dystopian perspectives on the role of the Internet. Furthermore, the study proposed a shift away from perspectives that isolated the Internet in contrast to other forms of media (the satellite-Internet divide) by examining the link between social media and satellite broadcasts during the uprising. Finally, the authors concluded by calling for an understanding of the relationship between online and offline political action.


    Al-Ani, B., Mark, G., Seaman, B. (2010). Blogging in a region of conflict: supporting transition to recovery, proceedings of the 28th international conference on human factors in computing system, pp. 1069- 1078.

    This report represented an empirical study of blogs written by Iraqi citizens during periods of disruption in their country. The report emerged three research streams: Disaster research on how people cope with environmental disruptions. Research on how people overcome boundaries of interaction through the Internet. Research on how people use social media to recover from disruption. The paper content analyzed 125 blogs in total. This analysis occurred through a model of stages of recovery from disaster (Hoffman): (i) extreme sense of isolation and disruption, (ii) formation into ‘survivor’ groups and emergence of new identities, and (iii) return home or settlement in new area. Blogs were explored as an avenue of transition from stage (i) to stage (ii).The study concluded that blogs facilitated this transition in a number of ways: Blogs created a safe, virtual environment in which bloggers can interact free of the violence experienced in the physical environment. Interactions through blogs in an interactive and personal manner allowed a large network of global support and formation of communities. Blogs enabled people experiencing conflict to find support and express their views with others in different physical locations. The study recommended how technology can better support the use of blogs in these situations.


    Ariagda, A., Scherman, A., Valenzuela, S.(2010). The social media bases of youth protest behavour: The case of Chile. Journal of communication, vol.62, no.2, 299-314.

    Guided by the theory of uses and gratification, this study examined the link between social media use and youth protest in Chile. The study got data from a survey of Chilean urban youths (18-29) designed to measure protest behavior, Facebook use, grievances and dissatisfaction, political and cultural values, individual resources (material, psychological and social) and the use of new media. The study examined the role of social media as a means of political action as a trend of particular interest considering the disengagement of youth from conventional politics. This was achieved through examination of the process by which relationships between social media and political change were formed, and the mechanisms through which these were mediated. Finally, the study examined the contingent conditions under which social media could become crucial to protest by examining the moderating role post materialist values and ideologies. The study concluded that survey ‘respondents with a Facebook account engaged in more protest activities than respondents without a Facebook account’. Furthermore, the study concluded that the frequency of use of social networking accounts correlated to higher levels of protest behavior.

    Attia, M., Azizi, N., Fredman, B., Elhusseiny, M. F. (2011). Commentary: The impact of social networking tools on political change in Egypt’s “Revolution 2.0”. Electronic commerce research and applications, vol. 10, no .4

    This commentary examined the impact of social networking tools on political change in Egypt’s 2011revolution, discussing social networking factors with regards to the predisposition of Egyptian people to revolt. The scholars argued that these factors had a positive impact on attitudes towards social change, which in turn supported individual and aggregate behavior towards revolution. A literature evaluation identified numerous variables affecting people’s behavior and individual use of social networking tools: (i) trust, (ii) relationships, (iii) loyalty, (iv) value, and (v) word of mouth. In an Egyptian context, the report showed that there was a perception of trust on the words of others who were calling for the uprising. The study concluded that in Egypt social networking tools demonstrated ‘trust, developed and maintained strong relationships, expressed loyalty, obtained value and aggressively used word of mouth to further the cause. These tools helped form positive behavioral intentions to bring about change and also created and sustained individual and collective uprisings.

    Chiluwa, I. (2012). Social media networks and the discourse of resistance: A sociolinguistic CDA of Biafra online discourse. Discourse and society, vol.23, no. 3 , 217-244.

    This study focused on how social media networks (SMN) had been used through social protest
    and resistance to oppression and power abuse. The study applied a sociolinguistic-based Critical
    Discourse Analysis (CDA) to investigate how sociolinguistic issues (virtual community, identity,
    language and social interaction) were used to project self-determination and the struggle for
    independence. The study focused on blogs and discussion forums held by the Biafra Online
    Campaign Groups (BOCG). The study concluded that the BOCG had mainly used discussion forums and websites for their online activism without immediate corresponding offline protests.

    Arnold, D. (2012). Syria : A war reported by citizen-journalists, social media, Radio free Europe, Radio liberty, http//www.rferl.org/contents/Syria-warreported-by-citizen-journalists-socialmedia/24630841.html

    This study used survey method to examine the role of ‘citizen journalists’, the use of smart phones to document footage, and the use of sites such as YouTube, Twitter and Facebook in the Syrian uprising. Based on uses and gratification theory the study examined the role of ‘citizen journalists’ during crisis. The study concluded that citizen journalists played complimentary roles similar to the role of more traditional foreign correspondents and served as valuable sources of information during times of conflict, especially in situations often too dangerous for formal, traditional journalists to operate.


    Baiardy, M. J. (2011). Syrian conflicts played out on social media. Institute for war and peace reporting. http://iwpr.net/repotnews/syrianconflict-played-out-social-media.

    This study examined the role of the media in mobilizing popular dissent in Syria through satellite
    TV and the Internet. The role of social media was examined through their ability to allow individuals to communicate with the outside world. The study showed that these media had acted as means of comparison for individuals to explore the rights and freedoms available in other countries in contrast to Syria. The study examined the positive and negative consequences of social media – the radical change demonstrated by activists on Twitter at the beginning of protests, in contrast to the use of Twitter as a means for the promotion of security forces propaganda. The study found that social media were valuable points of access for journalists, where traditional and international reporting were not permitted and served to fill a gap in coverage.

    Ande-papandopoulos, K. (2009). US soldiers imaging the Iraq war on YouTube. Popular communication, vol.7, no, 1, 17-27.

    This study content analyzed YouTube uploads from soldiers stationed in Iraq and Afghanistan alongside a survey of the role of social media in perceptions of war and war reporting. This study was primarily concerned with the online proliferation of international conflicts through modern communication technologies, the ethical implications of this, and the consequences this had for traditional journalism. The study considered homemade videos uploaded to YouTube by coalition soldiers, with consideration being given to format, meanings and communicative functions of these videos and the ways they diverge from traditional war reporting. The uploaded videos were categorized as live recordings of violent confrontation, behind the scenes recordings, and/or tributes to fallen soldiers. The study concluded that these recordings provided the critical perspectives needed for a more open democratic questioning of international conflict.

    El-Hamamsey, W. (2011). BB=Black berry or big brother: Digital and the Egyptian revolution. Journal of postcolonial writing, vol. 47, no., 454-466.

    Anchored on the uses and gratification theory, this study used survey method to examine the use of digital media in the 2011 Egyptian revolution, with a focus on the role of digital media as a tool of control and manipulation as well as a mode of resistance. The study explored the government’s reaction to the threat of digital media through a chronology of an imposed period of Internet and phone blockage during the revolution. The study examined this event through two lenses: (i) manipulation of blockage and (ii) manipulation through propaganda. The study concluded that the government’s attempts to manipulate the revolution injected protesters with greater momentum. It found that cutting off avenues for communication among protesters only led to more people taking to the streets to gain first-hand access to events as they unfolded. Further, the blockage that the government intended as sabotage came to be used by protestors for resistance and solidarity.

    Cottle, S. (2011).Media and the Arab uprising of 2011: Research notes. Journalism, vol. 12, no. 5, 647-659.

    This study examined the broad, overlapping ways in which media systems and communication
    Net works conditioned and facilitated the 2011 Arab uprisings and communicated them to the rest of the world. New social media (YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, blogging and the use of mobile phones) played an important role in the communicating, coordinating and channeling of opposition to overcome state controlled national media. The study showed that labeling these events ‘Twitter (or Facebook) revolutions’ failed to do justice to the political and media complexities involved. The study also showed that there were a number of different ways in which media systems and communications networks had become inscribed inside the Arab uprisings, namely: Analysis of how state-run media had served to legitimize political regimes and how mainstream news media had played a less than critical role when reporting on them; the role of the media and globalization in penetrating societies with a Western democratic culture; the role of social media in conveying these images across everyday life and helping perpetuate them as part of mundane sociability; the role of social media in tandem with mainstream media to alert international news media; the repressive responses of the state in an attempt to censor and contain the out-flow of images; The role of media in acting as a contagion for hope and inspiration; the role of international mainstream media in recognizing and legitimizing protests…..


    Eltantawy, N., Wiest, J. B. (2011). Social media in the Egyptian Revolution: Reconsidering resource mobilization theory. International journal of communication, vol.5, 1207-1224.

    This study examined the use of resource mobilization theory in explaining social movements and their impact through exploration of social media in the 2011 Egyptian revolution. The study showed that resource mobilization theory can help in understanding the Egyptian revolution in terms of the influential context and resources and of their ubiquity and potential for communicating messages to massive, global audiences. However, the study said that it is important to consider the influence of social, political and historical contexts as outside conditions. The study showed that social media played an instrumental role in the success of protests and concluded by recommending further examination of the proposed incorporation of social media as an important resource for collective action and organization of contemporary social movements.

    Ghanaam, J. (2011). Social media and the Arab world leading up to the uprising of 2011. Center for International media Assistance (CIMA) and National Endowment for Democracy, Washington DC.

    This report was commissioned in the period leading up to the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt in early 2011.The study was based on 35 interviews, primary and secondary documents, commentaries, websites, blogs, etc. Key findings of the study included: About 17 million people in the Arab region were using Facebook and demand was expected to grow. Arab governments were developing telecommunications infrastructure for increased Internet connectivity to meet future demands of digital economies (particularly among youths). Alongside these technical increases, were efforts to monitor, filter and block web sites. Authorities regularly called upon emergency laws and cybercrimes laws to provide justification for arrests, fines and incarcerations for individuals engaged in online writings. Some Arabic government officials were active contributors to social networking platforms. The popularity of online news had risen in comparison to traditional news media. Indigenous social media platforms progressed beyond ‘blogging’ by offering community-driven quality news, online video stories and forums for greater interactivity.


    Ghawena, J. (2012). Digital media in the Arab world one year after the revolutions. CIMA, Washington DC

    This report sponsored by CIMA traced the global followings acquired by individuals on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube during the Arab Spring. The report was commissioned with the objective of documenting the continued impact of social and digital media in the Arab region. Key findings of the study were as follow: Tens of millions of contributors are creating and sharing online content and influencing the information channels throughout the Arab region. Digital media enabled the blending of journalists with citizen journalists and activists. Arab governments and religious groups were targeting journalists and bloggers for reporting on sensitive issues (e.g. religion). The battle for the Arab blogosphere (post revolution) turned from a means of circumventing government Internet controls to a ‘cyberwar’ for the narrative rights of sites such as Facebook and Twitter; often this narrative was influenced by governments and political parties in the region. Social media reinvigorated traditional media. Social media served as political cover whereby sensitive stories were floated on social media sites to guide potential reactions before being broadcast in more traditional media. There were complaints that contributors in the region lack ethics and fail to meet journalistic standards. There were significant concerns regarding the accuracy and authentication of user generated content. The report recommended advocacy organizations and media outlets act as champions for ethical standards and to ensure information flows were fair and accurate. Furthermore, the study noted that training was needed for online citizen-journalists to assist in authentication of information.


    Hamdy, M., Goma, E. H. (2012). Framing the Egyptian uprising in Arabic language newspapers and the social media. Journal of communication, vol. 62, no. 2, 195-211

    This study examined the January 2011 uprising in Egypt and how this was framed in the state-run media, independent media and social media through a quantitative content analysis of 800 documents between 25 January 2011 and 12 February 2011. Semi-official state-run sources comprising 72 stories and 80 opinion columns from Al-Ahram, Al-Akhbar, Al-Messa, and Al‑Jomhoriya Independent newspapers comprising 640 news stories and 160 opinion columns from Al-Shorouk, and Al-Youm-Al-Sabee Social media comprising 150 ‘We are all Khaled Saed’ Facebook group posts, 450 tweets posted on #Thawra#25jan, and 200 posts on popular Egyptian blog sites. These data were coded according to author, publication type, title, and keywords. The study concluded that governmental newspapers framed the event as a conflict or a ‘conspiracy on the Egyptian state’ with a focus on the economic consequences, and painting the event as harmful and catastrophic. In contrast, social media famed the event in more human terms as ‘a revolution for freedom and justice’ with a focus on the suffering of ordinary Egyptians. The study further concluded that independent media represented a middle ground between these two camps, reflecting the fact that authors of these publications had multiple loyalties. Furthermore, the study concluded that social media defined the events as a revolution from the beginning, with semi-official press reluctant to recognize the events as a mass social movement. Semi official sources attributed the causes of the crisis to foreign meddling, while independent press and social media emphasized corruption, injustice, poverty and oppression as the main causes.


    1. This is good. I took note of the attempt you made to ensure currency of annotated works. This is very good. A number of your works are 2011/2012 jobs. I know there are jobs done afterwards but the ones annotated here are still within the 5-year mark I emphasized in class. Well done. Just that you annotated a work published in 2031 when you posted your first 10 jobs and I’ve not survived the shock of suddenly finding out that one of my Ph.D students wants to drag us ‘back to the future’. I later noted your apology and correction anyway. Well done.

  11. Genevieve Nwedo-Nzeribe

    Annotated Bibliography on books, journals and articles and position papers on my area of interest; television and telecommunication.
    Batch 2
    1.Umeh, C. C. (1989). ‘The Advent and Growth of Television Broadcasting in Nigeria: Its Political and Educational Overtones’ Africa Media Review Vol. 3 No. 2. 1989

    This article examines the political and educational motivation for the establishment of television in Nigeria from 1959 when the Western Nigeria Television (WNTV) was established to early 1962 when the Federal Government and the three existing regional governments each had a television station. The creation of new states was accompanied by the proliferation of
    television stations until the establishment of the Nigerian Television Authority (N.T.A.)
    checked this proliferation and apparent wastage of resources. The article assesses the performance of educational television broadcasting in Nigeria and concludes that it has largely been successful. In conclusion, this study affirms that the advent and growth of television
    broadcasting in Nigeria were motivated and channeled, respectively, by strong political and educational considerations. Some of the problems and shortcomings of the medium have been highlighted and examined. These problems and shortcomings notwithstanding, television broadcasting in Nigeria has been a success in comparison with its performance elsewhere in
    the Third World.

    2.Neil, C., L. W. McKnight, and Solomon, R. J.(1995) ‘Re-Engineering the Elephant:
    Organizational Alternatives for Accelerating Internet Access in Africa.’ White Paper for the
    United Nations Development Programme.
    This working document sees ICTs in Africa as vehicle for accelerating Internet access in Africa by enhancing co-operation among donors and service providers. The authors review the economic context for developing networks and the major consideration affecting development of the Internet on the continent. The need for the collection of statistics on African Internet traffic and resource allocation in African Internet networks is emphasized. The authors note that the critical aspect of this complex problem involved pricing policies and ask how the costs will be financed. They detail the various costs, showing that the commonly cited expense of network hardware is only a small fraction of the overall costs. It is this document that recommended the creation of the ‘African Internet Forum’, which is operational today.

    3.Lotz, A. D.(2009) ‘What is USA Television Now’ The Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 625, no. 15: 49-59
    In this article the author outlines three phases in the history of American television, identifying how production and distribution affected exhibition practices amongst viewers. These three phases in chronological order are: (1) the network era, in which the television was temporally and spatially fixed to the home affecting cultural TV practices; (2) the multi-channel transition, characterized by increased technological advances such as cable services, video recording devices and the remote control, all of which enabled greater user control and choice; (3) the post network era in which digitalization lead to greater interaction between computers and television and companies formed media conglomerates. To begin my argument, I will focus on the history of television over the years and this article provides a timeline that includes the effects of production and distribution.
    4.Van der Broeck, Wendy, J. P. and Bram L. (2008) ‘Confronting Video-on-Demand with Television Viewing Practices: Innovation for By Users’ Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Vol. 46 no. 12.
    The chapter in this book states that the three main affordances of VOD are a time, space and content bias that give the viewer more choice and control than traditionally broadcast television. In outlining the three states of television viewing, front (primary), side (secondary) and back (tertiary), my blog will be able to explore the domestication of the television and its effects on everyday routines. With the affordances of VOD watching television will change and the effect will also change how people create routines for themselves. The work in this chapter will be useful when referencing tweeting practices in my research blog and how this practice may have moved from the side stage to the front stage.
    5. Cummings, C. and O’Neil, T. (2015). ‘Do Digital Information and Communication Technologies Increase the Voice and Influence of Women and Girls? http://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org/files/pdf
    This is a study on the impact Information and Communication Technology ICTs have on woman and girls using ICTs to find their voice in global communication. The study based on Empowerment Theory is not about availability of ICT choices but the extent to which women and other members of society have been able to use it to advantage. This study agrees with an earler study by Gurunrity on Influence of ICTs on Women which saw ICT facilities as a new set of capabilities which when lacking, translates to deprivation irrespective of gender.
    6.MacDonald, J. F. (1992). Blacks and White TV: African Americans in Television since 1948. 2nd ed. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
    ‘Blacks and White TV: African Americans in Television since 1948’ is an inquiry to the treatment of Blacks in television from 1948 onward. The author separates the book into four sections, “The Promise Denied, 1948-1957,” “Blacks in TV in the Age of the Civil Rights Movement, 1957-1970,” “The New Age of Minstrelsy, 1970-1983,” and “Blacks in the New Video Order, 1983-Present.” Parts 1 and 2 give detailed analysis of Blacks and their role in all aspects of television and the adversities faced in the representation of Blacks in the new media from 1948-1970. The study is based on
    7.Cyamukungu, M. (1996). ‘Development Strategies for an African Computer Network.’ Information Technology for Development, 7, no. 2: 91-94.

    This study proposes an evolutionary path for African computer networks, arguing that the network infrastructure in the continent had been installed and mainly driven by the interests of donor agencies. The model proposed was based on existing technologies, such as FidoNet, UUCP and Internet nodes. The author looks at the provision of services and network architectures and proposed network paths aimed at providing ‘universal’ access to a large number of African users at the lowest cost. The paper is highly technical, identifying a data capture architecture, based on cost-effective technology and leading towards the provision of real-time data trans- mission. There is a diagrammatic representation of a network architecture which would build towards a capacity suitable for real-time data transmission. The architecture incorporates Africanusers’ requirements but would require African input on the development of interfaces, software and transceivers. Cyamukungu claims that the final result would be an evolving network that could be upgraded without difficulty and would guarantee an optimized quality- cost ratio during each phase of its evolution.

    8.Stephan, A.M. (2013). ‘2013 NETFLIX STRATEGIC ANALYSIS.’ AMS Consulting. <http://www.alysonstephan.net/uploads/Netflix_Strategic_Analysis.pdf&gt;
    This proposal, outlined by AMS Consulting in its paper, details a strategic plan designed to revamp Netflix’s business approach to match current consumer habits. Regardless of whether or not this approach was adopted by Netflix, it still speaks towards current viewing practices and provides insight into current user trends. First, they suggest incorporating online review, further affecting the viewer’s program choice. Second it calls for adding a new tagging feature that allows users to tag quotes and scenes so that fellow users can view them and interact with them. The proposal as a whole is evidence of a current trend towards creating a precise user profile and a drive towards user connectivity.
    9.Brown, B. and Barkhus, L. (2006). ‘The Television will be Revolutionised: Effects of PVRs and File Sharing on Television Watching’. Proceedings of CHI ’06: 663-666
    In this article the authors sought to examine the viewing habits of individuals who either recorded their television shows through PVRs (personal video recorders) such as TiVo, or downloaded them online through peer-to-peer networks. From their findings they conclude that there is a “television life cycle” in which the viewer hears about the show, finds, watches and then downloads the show creating their own archive. They suggest that this affordance of new digital technologies makes television viewing more interactive. The study is hinged on the concept of “Television Life Cycle.”
    10.Darch, C. and Underwood, P. (1999). 'Dirt Road or Yellow Brick Superhighway? Information and Communication Technology in Academic Libraries in South Africa.' Library Hi Tech, 17, no. 3: 285-297.
    Stresses that ICT development in South African libraries must be understood within the context of the post-apartheid period. The authors imply that much research has been conducted with little concrete results, yet government policy emphasizes the importance of connectivity in redressing inequality. The main development in their view was the emergence of an academic library consortium, which is attracting funding from a number of donors. However, without information literacy, these developments have little impact and are grounds for 'techno-pessimism', as digital information resources are seen by developed countries as commodities for which payment must be made.

    11.Entsua-Mensah, C.91998). 'The Internet: New Challenges for Information Professionals in Ghana.' Information Development Journal, Vol.14, no. 3.
    This article addresses how information professionals in Ghana were confronting the challenges of Information and Communication Technology. According to Entsua-Mensah, information professionals in Ghana lacked the necessary organizational infrastructure to benefit from Internet access and claimed that development of the requisite infrastructure has been given low priority in Ghana. Many of the 'traditional information professionals' lacked the skills to operate modern systems. There is an overview of Internet development in Ghana, including initiatives like Leland, PADIS and the Ghana InfoDev project, which was initiated in 1996 with initial support from UNESCO under AISI.

    12.Huotari, Kai. (2013). ‘Live-tweeter–an Empowered TV Viewer’Next Media: A Tivit Programme.
    This qualitative research paper explores the different types of tweeters, their social interactions and their effect on the live-TV viewing experience. After analyzing how live tweeting has changed television viewing the research compiled 8 observations, three of which are important to note: (1) viewers learn to balance their time between the television screen and the twitter screen; (2) viewers are less inclined to change the channel; (3) live tweeting offers new insight into the television viewing. The research In conclusion, this research paper states that live tweeting gives the viewer more social interaction and more control over their television viewing experience.
    13.Zimmerman F. J. and Christakis D. A . (2005). ‘Children’s Television Viewing and Cognitive Outcomes: A Longitudinal Analysis of National Data’
    Pediatric/Adolescent Medical Journal, Vol. 159 no.7: 619 – 625.
    Does television really make you dumb? That’s what my mom always said when she switched off the TV. These researchers set out to find out if this was true. This study used national data to compare cognitive development in children who watch a significant amount of television and their non-television viewing peers. This study begins to prove a link between television viewing and reduced cognitive development and academic achievement. Overall, children who watched a lot of television struggled more in school and were less likely to finish college.

    14.London, H. (1982). ‘Five Myths of the Television Age’ Television Quarterly Vol.10.18189..http://www.library.mun.ca/guides_bibl.php
    Herbert London, the author of several books and articles, explains how television contradicts five commonly believed ideas. He uses specific examples of events seen on television, such as the assassination of John Kennedy, to illustrate his points. His examples have been selected to contradict such truisms as: “seeing is believing”; “a picture is worth a thousand words”; and “satisfaction is its own reward.” London uses logical arguments to support his ideas which are his personal opinion. He doesn’t refer to any previous works on the topic; however, for a different point of view, one should refer to Joseph Patterson’s, “Television is Truth” (The Journal of Television 45 (6) November/December 1995: 120-135). London’s style and vocabulary would make the article of interest to any reader. The article clearly illustrates London’s points, but does not explore their implications, leaving the reader with many unanswered questions.
    15.Khalil, O. E. and M. M. Elkordy, M. M. (1997) ‘The Relationship of Some Personal and Situational Factors to is Effectiveness: Empirical Evidence from Egypt.’ Journal of Global Information Management Vol. 5, no. 2,
    Khalil and Elkordy tested the relationship of some personal and situational characteristics of the users of information systems to the systems’ effectiveness in Egyptian banks. They interviewed 120 managers in 22 Egyptian banks. Their findings indicate that user satisfaction was associated positively with age, organizational level and education. The authors warn that the findings should be interpreted cautiously, considering that most of the systems investigated were MIS. They recommend that Egyptian banks who want to plan for successful information systems and to address their IT adoption process more successfully should carefully address the personal and institutional factors that they have control over.

    1. Good work. I thought you were told to emphasize television studies but your last work on banking(15.Khalil, O. E. and M. M. Elkordy, M. M. (1997) ‘The Relationship of Some Personal and Situational Factors to is Effectiveness: Empirical Evidence from Egypt.’ Journal of Global Information Management Vol. 5, no. 2,) seems to be alien to your area of focus.
      Again, what is this job saying exactly – 8.Stephan, A.M. (2013). ‘2013 NETFLIX STRATEGIC ANALYSIS.’ AMS Consulting ? The annotation seems not to expose readers to the relationship between the study and your area of concentration.
      However, this is a nicely done job. You showed depth understanding of the art of writing annotated bibliography. Well done.

  12. Genevieve Nwedo-Nzeribe

    Annotated Bibliography on books, journals and articles and position papers on my area of interest; television and telecommunication.
    Batch 3
    1.Alzouma, Gado. (2005). ‘Myths of Digital Technology in Africa: Leapfrogging Development?’ Global Media and Communication 1: 339-356.

    Alzouma examines the concept that ICTs will enable Africa to leapfrog into the present day
    technological world and an abundance of economic opportunity by providing people with
    computers without serious taking into consideration the existing social conditions. The author
    outlines the perceived benefits that ICT adoption will bring along with the hindering aspects.
    Despite growth, he sees the digital divide as a gap both between countries and inside countries
    making it much more difficult to bridge. He further proposes that cyber-identities in the global
    environment could lead to loss of cultural identity. The author concludes that ICT adoption must
    The components of the African Elections Project consisted of: (1) training of editors, reporters, and journalists; (2) development of an election guide; (3) using Short Message Service (SMS) applications, microblogging tools, videos and images for content gathering and media coverage; (4) an online information and knowledge portal; and (5) media monitoring with an early warning system. The authors discuss observations learned during the course of the project, including challenges that need to be addressed to make future election coverage more effective.

    2. Moran, A. and Malbon, J. (2006). ‘Understanding the Global TV Format’ Cultural & Media Studies Books. https://www.intellectbooks.co.uk/books/view-Book,id=4179/
    Recent years have seen an astonishing growth in the adaptation of program formats in television systems across the world. Under the new market conditions of the multi-channel cluster brought about by new technologies and increased privatization of service, the adaptation of successful and popular TV formats from one place to another is occurring on an increasingly regular basis. Hence, the remaking of different national versions of Big Brother and Pop Idol are only part of what is going on. In fact, from Chinese versions of Coronation Street and Sex and the City, Indian and Indonesian remakes of Who Wants To Be A Millionaire?, program clones of Ground Force and other make-over and renovation shows across Europe and the UK, this is the era of the global TV format. The authors have provided a valuable guide to the institutional, cultural and legal dimensions of the format. Understanding the Global TV Format thus addresses the different stages and issues of the business. The book is especially useful and illuminating as it provides an examination of the institutional background and motivations of the development of global television formats using interviews with prominent people from the industry.

    3.MacDonald, J. F. (1992) ‘Blacks and White TV: African Americans in Television since 1948’ 2nd ed. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
    This book set out to inquire about the treatment of Blacks in television from 1948 onward. The author separates the book into four sections, “The Promise Denied, 1948-1957,” “Blacks in TV in the Age of the Civil Rights Movement, 1957-1970,” “The New Age, 1970-1983,” and “Blacks in the New Video Order, 1983-Present.” Parts 1 and 2 give detailed analysis of Blacks and their role in all aspects of television and the adversities faced in the representation of Blacks in the new media from 1948-1970. The book provided an in-depth study of the role of news media and the struggle for minorities to have more say in it.
    4.Ahmed, Allam. (2007). ‘Open Access Towards Bridging the Digital Divide: Policies and Strategies for Developing Countries’ Information Technology for Development Journal: Vol. 13

    Ahmed examines whether Open Access (OA) is an effective solution towards bridging the digital
    divide. The author gives a history of the OA movement, as well as definitions of commonly used
    terms in OA. The paper also includes a literature review of ICTs and the digital divide in
    developing countries. The Digital Opportunity Index (DOI) of African countries is listed for
    2005. The author discusses while OA would benefit African countries, there have been
    challenges and threats facing OA in Africa. The author describes key success factors for OA,
    including economic value, training users and developers, and policy support for an OA strategy.
    The article concludes with a list of strategic and policy implications for building OA in Africa as
    a means to bridge the digital divide.

    5.Eko, Lyombe. (2010). ‘New Technologies, Ancient Archetypes: The Boston Globe’s
    Discursive Construction of Internet Connectivity in Africa.” Howard Journal of Communications 21: 182-198.

    Eko looks at a three-part series published in the Boston Globe on a fiber-optic system intended to
    Bridge the digital divide in Africa. The paper gives a background of myths and archetypes often
    used in journalism, especially the archetype of Africa as the “Dark Continent.” The author feels
    the Globe used this archetype while describing Africa’s fiber-optic system. Using van Dijk’s
    textual analytic approach to discourse analysis, Eko found that the Globe used a number of
    myths to portray Africa as the Dark Continent of the information age. The first myth of duality is
    exemplified with the digital divide, the paper explained. According to the study, the
    Globe also used the myth of the last frontier by portraying Africa as the last to join the global information economy. The author found ICTs were described as a new beginning, another myth in the Dark Continent archetype. Finally, the Globe portrayed a telecommunications consultant from Massachusetts as the heroine of the last frontier, another theme common to mythology,
    according to Eko’s study. The paper concludes with the story the author felt the Globe ignored,
    which was how countries of Africa worked together to revolutionize African telecommunications
    and reduce the digital divide.
    6.Edgerton, Gary R. (2007). The Columbia History of American Television. New York: Columbia University Press.
    This book, Columbia History of American provides a detailed history of television from its invention up to present day. This book also gives a history of the major broadcasting networks, their presidents, and their programming. It also provides context for how television was received by the public, its anticipation and its role within American life since its invention. Edgerton also talked about the shifts within the media due to changes in politics as well as control by Advertisers.
    7.Addo, H. (2001). “Utilizing information and communication technology for education and development: issues and challenges for developing countries.” IFLA Journal 27: 143–
    Addo addresses the role of ICTs in education and development in developing countries. The
    article describes how World Bank created the World Links for Development program to assist
    developing countries in increasing connectivity and training for ICTs. The author discusses
    benefits countries receive by participating in the program. The paper also lists several challenges
    ICTs face in these countries. One challenge Addo lists is the lack of an infrastructure to support
    the technology. The article describes the lack of indigenous knowledge as another problem
    facing developing countries. The challenges caused by Globalization are also addressed in the
    paper. Addo discusses possible solutions for Africa, such as the use of multimedia software in
    education, and centers of excellence to teach the community computer skills.
    8.Alberto, N, G. (2016). ‘Emotions in Contemporary TV series’ Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    ‘Emotions in Contemporary TV series’ is the result of a study of emotion in television which is a relatively new area in research. The book’s structure, divided between various theoretical approaches, identity and genre gives an insight how we see emotion theoretically and how it appears on television. The opening chapters are more theoretical as they defined how emotion is used on television while later chapters use samples from some programmes. One of the strengths of the book is the way in which many chapters talk to each other. Despite the theoretical diversity in methodical approaches such as feminist, psychoanalytical, cognitive etc, there is a lack of interrogation about the audience which is variedly reoffered to as spectator, or experiencer and viewer on one hand. Although I enjoy the analysis, I have a problem with the approaches used.
    9.Valder, Andy. (2006). ‘Understanding Telecommunications Networks’ Institution of Engineering and Technology
    This book explains how telecommunications networks work. It uses straightforward language supported by copious block-schematic diagrams so that non-engineers and engineers alike can learn about the principles of fixed and mobile telecommunications networks carrying voice and data. The book covers all aspects of today’s networks, including how they are planned, formed and operated, plus next generation networks and how they will be implemented. After an introductory chapter on telephony the book briefly describes all of today’s networks; mobile, cable television, the Internet, etc. Individual chapters then consider the principles, technologies and network structures relating to transmission, circuit switching, signaling and control, data (including voice-over-IP) networks, and mobile networks. The book concludes with a chapter designed to pull everything together, considering architecture, quality of service and performance, operations and network evolution. This book’s coverage of the basic principles makes it a helpful and enduring reference for undergraduate and postgraduate students, and for professionals working in the industry.

    10.Ajuwon, Ada G. and Lenny Rhine. (2008) ‘The Level of Internet Access and ICT Training for Health Information Professionals in Sub-Saharan Africa’ Health Information & Libraries Journal 25: 175-185.

    The objective of this study was to assess internet access and ICT training among health information professionals in Sub- Saharan Africa by means of a survey. The survey used a rating scale to determine the ICTs and the Digital Divide in Africa using professional’s self-assessment of ICT-related skills and information accessing skills. The survey found 92.4% of those with internet access at work lived in cities. The study also found while health information professionals were aware of freely available digital resources in their field, a majority of them did not use them. According to the survey, health information professionals lack training in ICT-related skills because of affordability of this training. The authors of this paper argued that the study’s findings prove the need for funding in health information training.

    11.Narissra, M. P. (2008). ‘The Perceived Realism of African American Portrayals on Television’
    The Howard Journal of Communications. Vol.19 no. 3: 241-257.

    This study, based on questionnaire responses from 412 undergraduate students sought to examine specific perceptions about negative stereotyping of African Americans on television. Results revealed that television viewers perceive the occupational roles and personality characteristics that African Americans portray on television as real or true to life. These findings
    support past researches that suggest that television can affect the way viewers think about African Americans in general. Although this study provides important information about television viewers’ perceptions of perceived realism concerning television portrayals of African Americans, a few limitations must be mentioned. First, this study was conducted in a mass testing format. An experimental research design might have produced different results. Secondly, participants were not asked specific questions about why they answered the way they did. It would be more beneficial to conduct follow-up interviews to gain more information about possible extraneous variables. Third, previous studies have used the PRS as a subscale rather than just a main scale. Perhaps, more questions concerning African American portrayals on television should have been asked in the questionnaire. Lastly, the participants in this study were college students. If a more representative group of television viewers were used, the results may have been different. In spite of these limitations, this research contributes to our understanding of how African Americans are portrayed on television and how television viewers perceive specific characteristics concerning African Americans.

    12.Akpan-Obong, P. and Parmentier M.C. (2009). ‘Linkages and Connections: A Framework for Research in Information and Communication Technologies, Regional Integration, and Development’ Review of Policy Research 26: 289-309.

    The authors of this paper examined how ICTs and regional integration relate to socioeconomic
    development in Africa and South America. The paper includes a literature review of theories of
    integration and development, as well as the theoretical linkages between socioeconomic
    development and ICTs. The authors propose a theoretical model that shows the influences ICTs
    for development, regional integration, and socioeconomic development have on each other, and
    then apply the model to both South America and Africa. In Africa, the authors argue that because
    these factors relate to each other, spreading ICTs in Africa will require more than building a
    better infrastructure. For example, cultural roadblocks such as the colonial mentality that only
    products and services imported from outside Africa are acceptable needs to be overcome. The
    model proposed by the authors may help further research in challenges facing ICTs.

    13.Serra Tinic, Serra. (2005). ‘On Location: Canada’s Television Industry in a Global Market’ Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

    In this book, Tinic argues that the globalization of Vancouver’s production industry is not the outcome of American cultural imperialism but neglect at the federal public-policy level. Key to this neglect is a shift in policy thinking about the nation-building mandate of public broadcasting. She made her case well as she used a variety of methods, including an analysis of policy documents and trade publications, in-depth interviews with members of the Vancouver television community, and textual analyses of several programs. The book is highly commendable as a study of modes of television production in Canada, as a critique of Canadian television policy, and as a recent history of the Canadian television industry, as it strives to meet the demands of a global market. Most importantly, the book enjoins us to rejuvenate past debates about Canadian content. With work like Tinic’s inviting more questions and new approaches, the significance of place in Canadian television is an issue that will continue to hold our imaginations. Well organized and coherent with a lucid analysis and a clear writing style, On Location is suitable for experts and non-experts alike and should be on the reading list of anyone interested in the place of the local television industry within national and global cultures.

    14.Heeks, Richard.(2002). ‘E-Government in Africa: Promise and Practice.” Information Polity: The International Journal of Government & Democracy in the Information Age.Vol. 7: 97-114.

    Heeks describes a perceived crisis in systems of governance in Africa and the importance of e-government in solving this crisis. The paper argues that e-government can help by using e-
    administration to improve public sector internal processes. The author also advocates e-
    government as a way for citizens to communicate with the government. E-government initiatives
    can build an e-society, helping build partnerships between businesses and government, and
    develop the community, according to the article. However, Heeks describes many challenges to
    e-Government in Africa, and looks at studies done to explain the success and failure of e-
    government. The author found the degree of change correlated to the chance of failure, and
    proposes a model to explain this design-reality gap. The paper concludes arguing the importance
    in addressing current realities in Africa when planning projects in order to ensure their success.

    15.Moran, Albert. (2013). ‘TV Formats Worldwide: Localizing Global Programs’ The International Journal of Television Studies: Vol. 8, Issue 2. http://www.cjc-online.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/1793/1914
    Beginning in 1999 with Big Brother, the international television industry has seen a succession of mega programme formats over the past fifteen years. Yet, while critical researchers scramble to make sense of this phenomenon, the fact is that the practice of media franchising is not new, even if its place in the spotlight is relatively recent. To support my overall claim about the longevity of programme replication, I will consider the trajectory of content remaking since the 1930s in terms of four periods. The article identifies the programme remaking that occurred in each stage. It also pinpoints a cluster of factors that helped precipitate each new phase, thereby contributing to the emerging field of global television format studies.

    1. Another impressive job. But you didn’t have to repeat …”3.MacDonald, J. F. (1992) ‘Blacks and White TV: African Americans in Television since 1948’ 2nd ed. Chicago: Nelson-Hall”…. (This bibliography was contained in the second and third batch you posted. May be it was a quick attempt to deceive me yet I’ve been praising you for doing a nice job. Anyway you still worked hard here. Well done.

  13. Genevieve Nwedo-Nzeribe

    Annotated Bibliography on books, journals and articles and position papers on my area of interest; television and telecommunication.
    Batch 4

    1.Agbanu, V. N. and Ezekwelu, K.C. (2018). ‘Wire Service and Satellite TV in International News Flow and Public Diplomacy’ In Nwodu, L.C. and Ikemefuna, I. S. (eds) ‘Evolving Thoughts on International Communication Diplomacy and the Social Media’ Enugu: Rhyce Kerex.
    In this article, the authors looked at the role of satellite television in the competition to control global information flow through which the developed countries perpetrate neo-colonialism. In their conceptual clarification of satellite television, the authors described it as the television which reaches the remotest parts of the globe through the use of space to transmit signals. They also highlighted its role in public diplomacy as many nations use it to communicate directly with audiences if other countries. In conclusion, the authors noted how technologically advantaged countries now use satellite broadcasting to maintain dominance of the rest of the world who just gobble their media contents, a situation that influences their worldview. They called for caution among the developing nations against negative effects on their ideology, culture and economy from the information flow from the west which now penetrates their remotest parts.

    2.Omojola, Oladokun.(2009). ‘English-Oriented ICTs and Ethnic Language Survival Strategies in Africa’ Global Media Journal: African Edition 3: 1-13.

    Omojola discusses colonialism’s impact on ICTs in Africa in regards to language. The paper explains in many countries, those who speak the language of the colonizing country form an elite group. According to the article, many ICTs are not available in indigenous languages, leaving these populations unable to benefit from them. The author examines factors that have led to English being a dominant language on the continent. Omojola also looks at the dangers of favoring some indigenous languages over others, and examples of software that have made this decision. The paper finds that Google Yoruba, Google’s first local Nigerian language website, failed in its attempt to be relevant to locals. The author concludes it is up to Africans themselves to Africanize ICT content for their countries.

    3.Bielby, Denise. and Bryant, Kristen. (2016). ‘Global Television Industry’ United Kingdom: Oxford University Press

    The study of the global television industry is a multidisciplinary field informed by analysis of the cultures and cultural contexts of the production, distribution, and consumption of the medium of television. The authors of the book traced the history of Television from the 1920s until after World War II when it became widely adopted noting its original domestication as a medium focused on local interests. They attributed its global dimensions to production companies especially in the United States seeking to recoup the costs of production. The authors also noted that although the United States remains dominant in the sale of finished products, a vast number of nations, production companies, and networks now provide the United States with stiff competition within regional markets and program genres. Concluding, they observed that the ever-emerging technologies, penetrable national borders, remote markets, and viewer interest in programs from other countries are foundational concerns alongside the political economy of regulation that make up the study of the global television industry.

    4.Havens, Timothy. (2008). ‘Global Television Marketplace’ United Kingdom: British Film Institute.

    ‘Global Television Marketplace’ is a 208 paged book, providing an inside look at the cultural assumptions and business practices of television merchants. Its arguments are that the market in television programs responds principally to institutional needs, rather than to the wishes of the viewing public or the skills of television’s creative artists. The author observed that what television viewers around the world watch often depends less on popularity or government policies than on the personal relationships between buyers and sellers in the international programme market. A few thousand acquisitions and distribution professionals decide what programmes the earth’s inhabitants can watch, and who can watch them. Leaving aside conventional questions about the production contexts, textual strategies, or popular reception of entertainment television worldwide, this project trains its focus on the business practices of global television sales in order to provide a lucid overview of the diversity of firms, business practices, and programming genres present in international television.Consequently, this volume provides the first comprehensive portrait of the operations of the international television business, the people who work in the business, and the ideas that circulate among these businesspeople. Such a portrait is crucial to any theoretical treatment of television globalization, since international television executives determine global television flows in the first instance, based on their own understandings of the economics of the business and the preferences of their primary audiences.

    5.Unwin, Tim, et al. “Digital Learning Management Systems in Africa: Myths and Realities.” Open Learning 25 (2010): 5-23.

    This paper is a report on a survey covering the use of learning management systems (LMSs) in Africa. The authors provide a background of e-learning in Africa, which previously mainly used
    the Web for information gathering and e-mail for communication. The study was conducted by sending a survey of mostly closed questions to staff at various African institutions. The survey found many respondents were familiar with LMSs, however actual usage was lower. The study Confirmed lack of training could be a possible reason for low use. The authors also reported findings about knowledge of features of LMSs. The survey found users preferred LMSs because
    of the quality of learning and ease of access. However, the study also found factors limiting LMS use, including access. The paper includes case studies conducted in Mozambique and Kenya using the same survey. The authors conclude advocates of LMSs in Africa are still a small minority, and many infrastructural barriers must be overcome first before the systems become widespread.

    6.Kalu, K. N. (2007). ‘Capacity Building and IT Diffusion: A Comparative Assessment of E-Government Environment in Africa’ Social Science Computer Review 25: 358-371.

    Kalu examines e-government and the digital divide that exists between utilization in
    industrialized versus developing countries and what is necessary for African countries to participate in e-government based on the factors outlined in the E-Government Readiness Index. The author’s research is based on data from the 2004 Global E-Government Readiness Report from the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) and the scores and relative rankings of 38 African countries on the E-Government Readiness Index.

    7.Garcia, A. N. (2016). ‘Emotions in Contemporary TV Series’ Basingstroke UK: Palgrave Macmillan. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10/.1177
    ‘Emotions in Contemporary TV Series is a study of emotions in television, a relatively new area of research. The book’s structure, divided between theoretical approaches, identity and genres looks at how people think about emotion theoretically and how it appears on television series. The opening chapters are more theoretical, defining ways in which motion is used on TV while later chapters gave practical views giving examples with existing progrmmes. One unique feature of the book is the use of contributions from scholars in the various continents of the world. Their inputs is credited with the non- repetitiveness found in other collated essays as each chapter provides distinctive insight into the phenomenon of marketing television programmes across national borders. However, because the collection focuses on TV series, a few examples were allowed to dominate.

    8.Odo, O. N.(2018) ‘Social Media and Satellite Broadcasting as Agents of Cultural Imperialism’ In Nwodu, L. C. and Onunkwor, I. S. (eds). ‘Evolving Thoughts on International Communication, Diplomacy and the Social Media’ Enugu: Rhyce Kerex.

    In this article, the author explores the role of social media and satellite broadcasting in perpetrating cultural imperialism. Providing a conceptual overview of satellite broadcasting, the author defines it as the distribution of multimedia content or broadcast signals over or through a satellite network. The outcome of the study is that social; media and satellite television are strong agents of cultural imperialism which must be controlled through regulations. It highlights the need for the developing nations to tap the opportunities in them for sustainable development. The author called on scholars, media practitioners and researchers to seek more solutions to the imbalance in world communication order which the two technologies are rather furthering. The study agrees with a similar one, ‘Wire Service and Satellite TV in International News Flow and Public Diplomacy’ by Agbanu, V. N. and Ezekwelu, K.C. in which they also see satellite television as technology used by developed countries to maintain their dominance in information flow over the developing countries.

    9.Kamel, Sherif. (2009). ‘Building the African Information Society’ International Journal of Technology Management 45: 62-81.

    Kamel reviews some of the projects and initiatives that have been implemented across Africa to build up ICT infrastructure. After outlining ICT developments in general, the author narrows the
    focus specifically on Africa and the ICT development goals of African leaders across the continent that are committed to the long-term strategy of the African Information Infrastructure
    (AII). Success to date has come about through many entities including national and regional initiatives and projects, civil society initiatives, nongovernmental organization (NGO) social and
    educational development programs, as well as country based initiatives. Specific country-based examples are given for Egypt, Rwanda, Mauritania and Morocco. The author then outlines the
    objectives and goals of the African Information Society Initiative (AISI) and the initiatives designed to carry them out. The paper includes two informative summary tables of challenges and opportunities for the various developmental areas and proposed projects. Enabling institutional framework, universal access, ICT usage adapted to special local needs, and skilled ICT users are essential to the development and sustainability of AII initiatives. It also requires collaboration among all stakeholders including government, private sector, NGOs and the media for continued success.

    10.Ngwainmbi, E. K. (2005). ‘Globalization and NEPAD’s Development Perspective: Bridging the Digital Divide with Good Governance’ Journal of Black Studies 35: 284-309.

    Ngwainmbi presents a literature review of New Partnership for Africa’s Development NEPAD’s initiative that looks at both the positive and negative impacts it has had on ICT adoption on the African continent. Globalization and good governance are defined and discussed in relation to Africa’s socio-cultural and poli-economic development and how these influences affect progress today. The impact of foreign investments and neo-imperialism on ICT growth can be detrimental in some cases as the strategic development objectives of NEPAD are weakened and shifted from the original objective of leadership and control through partnership between African countries and foreign entities that is provided by Africans to seeking and receiving technical assistance from international entities who take the leadership roles in regional development planning. The author concludes that while NEPAD has made progress there are too many goals with no clear milestones in order to regularly evaluate progress.

  14. Annotated Bibliography.
    1.Nordenstreng, K. (2013). Lessons learned from the NWICO process http://www.uta.fi/cmt/en/contact/staff/kaarlenordenstreng/index.html
    Kaarle Nordenstreng, Professor Emeritus of Journalism and Mass Communication University of Tampere, Finland found that media scholars cannot after all make much difference on the barricades of the day, but that their contribution can make a great deal of difference by guiding the intellectual orientation of the real political forces and operations in society. In other words, he suggested that it is better to focus on a long-term and indirect influence on the paradigms prevailing in society than on a direct intervention in the policy process. The world has changed from a unipolar order, with the USA as the number one country and ideologies converging around neoliberalism, towards a multipolar order with China and other rising powers challenging the traditional Western hegemony. In this situation media scholars continue to be faced with the two tracks, political and intellectual, but both are today more complex than they used to be right after the Cold War. The new world order challenges us more than before both as activists and as academics

    2. Pickard, V. (2007). Neoliberal visions and revisions in global communications policy from NWICO to WSIS. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 31, 118-139.

    The author at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign suggested that similar to Streeter’s (1996) corporate liberalism, the WSIS domain does not contest the fundamental economic order. Instead of focusing on underlying social inequities and political solutions, WSIS seeks to shore up the existing system by limiting debate to technical issues. This overall narrowing of discursive boundaries reflects the ascendance of neoliberalism. The increasing depth and range of neoliberal capitalism has manifested in acceptance of a global communications policy regime designed to privilege commerce over global justice concerns about sharing resources within a human rights, focused system. Efforts toward redressing persistent asymmetries in global communications between rich and poor nations have been largely abandoned. Yet the contradictions that produce such a policy regime are also reflected in continuing contestation at WSIS, including the rise of NGO coalitions and civil society discourse that has remained consistent for decades despite changing global contexts.

    3. Alade, C. A. (2009). Russia and Chechnya: an essay in conflict and war. Nigerian journal of International affairs, 35, 1, 141-158.
    The researcher a professor at the department of History and International Studies, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos showed that conflict and war had been a distinguishing and constant element in interaction between both nationalities since they came into contact with each other. Relations between Russia and the people of Chechnya were long and contentious dating to the period of Russia’s expansion into the Caucasus in the 17th and 18th Centuries that was era of the establishment and consolidation of the Russian Empire. The history of the Empire was that of conquest on ethnic divisions. The Caucasus mountaineers had no cultural affinity with the Russians. They were equally distant to them in terms of ethnicity and religion also just as most Europeans are from the people of the Middle East. Consequently, a Russio-Chenchya relation was and is still characterized by conflict and war.
    4. Ridwan, A. A., Suleiman, H., & Biodun, Kazeem, S. (2014). Pattern of media practice in post-NWICO: the implication for Nigeria under democratic dispensation. Kuwait chapter of Arabian journal of business and management review, 3, 12, 84-95.

    The authors researchers at Broadcast Department,Lagos State University, Adebola Adegunwa School of Communication, Lagos, Nigeria, Journalism Department, Adebola Adegunwa School of Communication, Lagos, Nigeria, Mass Communication Department, Moshood Abiola Polytechnic, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria used empirical study of the trends of media practice in Nigeria with emphasis on democratic dispensation and found that with the emergence of democracy in 1999, media practice in Nigeria witnessed series of changes which include: the establishment of more F.M stations; the commercialization and privatization of media services; the use of computer and internet technology in radio, television, and print media houses; the commercialization of news; the continuous sustenance of the News Agency of Nigeria as purveyor of Nigeria Foreign Policy; the emergence of entrepreneurship practice in Nigeria media; the passage of Freedom of Information Act ; and the use of smart phones as tool of news reporting and writing.

    5. Sosale, S. (2003). Envisioning a new world order through journalism Lessons from recent history. London, Thousand Oaks, 4, 3, 377-392.

    The researcher, at Georgia State University emphasized the continued dominance of big (now even bigger) media, although the very recent problems with conglomerates like Vivendi Universal hint at the beginnings of a loss of faith in big media mergers within the transnational business community (Lohr, 2002). Barring this last new development, the notion of diffusing the centre continues to be critical. It is all the more important in such a climate to redefine and re-theorize the concept of public opinion as envisioned by the participants of the Third World Journalists’ Seminar and re-inscribe the notion of community into journalistic practices. Hence, changes in the present global system notwithstanding, some lessons can be culled from the debates for re-imagining a new (alternate?) world order.

    6. Olayiwola, A. R. O. (2016). Political Communication in the 2015 General Elections in Nigeria: The Oyo State Experience. The Wild, Wild West. Journal of Mass Communication Journalism, 6:312. doi:10.4172/2165-7912.1000312

    The author Lawyer/Solicitor of the Supreme Court of England and Wales and Commissioner for Oaths, London, UK noted the blatant, parochial, combative, rebellious coloration of political communication by political office contenders and some sections of the news media, ownership of news media dictated to a large extent the coverage given to various political parties in their political communication campaigns, Pressing issues that concern the interests of the people/voters/ electorate, were not discussed prominently by the political contestants, the government- owned news media were biased against opposition parties by giving more or less coverage in terms of quantity and quality of stories, favorable and unfavourable reportage, and the news media failed to adhere strictly to the professional journalistic ethics of objectivity, impartiality, and balancing, social responsibility, developmentalism, in the dissemination of news, information, political communication, election campaign coverage/reportage, education and entertainment of the people/voters /electorate.

    7. Apuke, O. D. & Apollos, I. N. (2017). Public perception of the role of Facebook usage in political campaign in Nigeria. International Journal of Community Development & Management Studies, 1, 85-102.

    The authors Oberiri Destiny Apuke at the department of Mass Communication, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria, and Nkasire Faith Apollos works in the news and current affairs departmentat Amana FM Gombe, Gombe State, Nigeria, found that Facebook as one of the most widely used social net-working site has become a tool intensely used in political campaigns around the world and has played a vital role even at the grassroots level. Facebook is accessible and affordable because one can use devices like computers, laptops, iPhones, Ipads and even the cheapest cell phone that has internet access to log in. However, as demonstrated in this paper, Facebook can be used negatively or positively in electioneering campaigns depending on the priorities of the candidates. Due to the freedom of political discussion on social media as postulated in Habermas public space, political campaign through Facebook allows for liberal democracy in which everybody says what he or she feels. Thus, the interconnection between public debate and individual participation has been fractured and transmuted into that of a realm of political information and spectacle, in which citizen-consumers ingest and observe passively entertainment and information.

    8. Alozieuwa, S. H. O. (2009). Beyond South Africa: Mbeki’s resignation and the consolidation of democracy in Africa. Nigerian journal of International affairs, 35, 1, 101-120.
    The scholar, a political analyst based in Abuja, Nigeria identified with the view that Zuma needs to exercise restraint in espousing his populism. This restrain has become imperative more so now that he has had the charges against him dropped and is almost as certain to clinch to the South African residency. The truth of the matter is that South Africa of today ranks as the foremost economy on the African continent. This economy interestingly operates within the existing globalization regime that is guided by the liberal democratic-free-market ethos. No matter how profound the feeling by Black South Africans that they are ill-prepared to engage in the commanding heights of their country’s economy, Zuma’s South Africa cannot however afford to de-link herself from the present global political economy, just to satisfy its Black population.
    9. Owuamalam, O. & Nnaemeka, F. O. (2015). Critical analysis of change is not easy as political Communication in Nigeria. Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, 3, 12, .70-82.

    Emman-Owums Owuamalam, associate Professor of Mass Communication, Chukwuemeka Odimegwu Ojukwu University, IGbariam Campus, Anambra State and Francis Obidike Nnaemeka, a lecturer in the same university and department found that found that the commercial is an exercise in glittering generalities, as propaganda in political communication. The proposition of “change” as “transformation” was a straw man’s logical fallacy and that the imported comparison of political performance by notable icons globally, has no direct correlation with transformation promised Nigerians, as bait for voter support and endorsement. It means that selected artistic elements in political advertisements must be relevant, through used political language, in the realization of set objective. It shows that message acceptance and believability are essential in political communication.

    10. Emruli, S., Zejneli, T. & Florin Agai, F. (2011). YouTube and political communication – Macedonian case. Journal of Computer Science Issues, 8, 4, 1, 460-466.

    The researchera, S. Emruli, professional IPA Advisor at Ministry of Local Self Government in Macedonia, T. Zejneli, a database administrator at Municipality of Tetovo in Macedonia. F. Agai a Professor at Electronics High School in Gostivar, Macedonia stated that with the introduction of user generated video content to the web, but more importantly into the political sphere, and the development of YouTube in 2005, the face of Internet politics has become less about what is being said and increasingly focused on how it is being said. It provided a space in which anyone was able to contribute to a political discussion despite the voter’s location, political affiliation, opinions and/or thoughts. YouTube, like the blogs, provided a space for voters and campaign members to upload video clips, regardless of the length, to the site, as a housing location for web videos and a place for all constituents to view the posted content

    1. Good work but how is this work related to ICTs or political communication – 8. Alozieuwa, S. H. O. (2009). Beyond South Africa: Mbeki’s resignation and the consolidation of democracy in Africa. Nigerian journal of International affairs, 35, 1, 101-120…?
      May be you just added it due to lack of materials to conclude your work. I read the annotation on the work and saw nothing directly talking about ICTs and Political communication.

  15. 1)Ajegbelen, A.J. (2016). The Use of ICT to Enhance University Education in Nigeria. International Journal of Education, Learning and Development Vol.4, No.5, pp.1-11, June 2016.
    Today, information and communication technology (ICT) is very important in the learning and teaching process at all levels of education. However, in Nigeria the use of ICT is still at its infancy. If the educational system in Nigeria is to match with global requirements, there is need to incorporate the use of ICT that facilitates knowledge acquisition within and beyond the classroom. This paper examines the gap and challenges facing the use of ICT in university education in Nigeria. The study is a descriptive survey that assessed five universities for the most urgent solution. The population of the study was 120 respondents and this is made up of university lecturers and the students. Findings revealed that there is a gap between the university teachers and students and ICT usage in classrooms and many university lecturers and students have to go to commercial cyber cafés in town before they have access to a computer that is internet connected, teachers are faced with some challenges and barriers of availability of facilities which prevent them to employ ICT in the classroom, the solutions proffered include funding, provision of facilities and technical expertise in Nigeria universities.

    2)Nathan David (2009). The Impact of ICT in Rural Education: Case Study – Enugu State
    Nigeria Journal of Technology, Vol. 28 No.2, September 2009
    Rural areas are geographically dispersed and if educational programs for such rural areas are to provide equitable coverage, accessibility technological means must be considered. Indeed there has to be an existing or proposed infrastructure that would enable these programs to be conveyed. This paper looks into the information and communication needs for the vast majority of rural areas in Enugu State so as to build mechanisms to support ICT in order to increase the rate of development and economic growth. The paper shows, through data collected from Secondary schools in Enugu State, why there is a pressing need to primarily finance ICT projects focusing on the needs, aspirations, capacities and perspectives of the vast majority of people in rural areas. Choices for communication infrastructure are detailed.

    3) Neji, Mpantor Oben (2016). Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Utilization and Implementation on Adult Education Programmes in Cross River State, Nigeria. Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (www.eajournals.org) 1SSN 2054-6297(Print), ISSN 2054-6300(Online)

    The study was designed to examine the utilization and implementation of ICT in adult education programmes in Cross River State. The specific purposes of the study were; identify the available ICTs for adult education programmes, find out the extent of utilization of ICT in adult education programmes, identify the implementation process adopted in adult education programmes, determine the constraints to the utilization and implementation of ICT in adult education programmes and ascertain the strategies for effective utilization and implementation of ICT in adult education programmes. The design of the study was a descriptive survey. The study showed available ICT facilities to include, the internet, computers, radios, mobile phones etc. The study revealed among others that the identified ICTs available will aid in the utilization and implementation of adult education programmes in Cross River State. Based on the findings, the researcher recommends among others that the national and state agencies for adult and non-formal education should create an environment where instructors can become conversant with the identified ICTs, to the organization of seminars, conferences and training of staff by the agency.

    4) Fabunmi, Francis Adesoji (2012).Undergraduate students’ perception of the effectiveness of ICT use in improving teaching and learning in Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. International Journal of Library and Information Science Vol. 4(7), pp. 121-130, December 2012
    The paper evaluated undergraduate students’ perception of the effectiveness of ICT use in improving teaching and learning in Ekiti State University, Nigeria. Four research questions guided the study and the instrument used was the questionnaire, the research method used was survey. The study came out with the results that there is a preference for ICT use in improving teaching and learning, though costlier than the traditional book sources. It was also discovered that students frequently use internet centres as places of accessibility to get information through ICT teaching and learning. It concludes by affirming the need for the development of ICT use in Nigeria universities for the improvement of teaching and learning for the students. This becomes imperative because ICT culture has come to stay globally in all higher institutions. Information and Communication Technology is now the modern means of improving teaching and learning especially in the University system.

    5) Ajayi, I. A. and Ekundayo, Haastrup T. (2009).The application of information and communication technology in Nigerian secondary schools. Department of Educational Foundations and Management, Faculty of Education University of Ado – Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
    This study examined the application of information and communication technology (ICT) in Nigerian secondary schools. The study investigated the level of availability of ICT facilities in schools, the capacity for using ICT facilities for teaching learning, the perceived benefits of using ICT and the problems facing the use of ICT in secondary schools. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population consisted of all the teachers and principals of the secondary schools in Ondo and Ekiti States. The sample consists of 320 teachers and 40 principals randomly selected from the secondary schools in Ondo and Ekiti States. A self designed questionnaire tagged “ICT” and secondary schools (ICTSS)” was used to collect the data for the study. Data collected for the study were analysed using frequency counts and percentage scores. The study revealed that ICT facilities were lacking in schools and teachers and students were to a little extent exposed to the use of ICT. Moreover, the study revealed the perceived benefits of using ICT in schools which include making teaching-learning interesting; helping the distance learning programme; helping teachers to be up-to-date; enhancing quality of work by both the teachers and the students. However, despite these perceived benefits, the study also revealed some of the challenges facing ICT in secondary schools as: irregular power supply:
    inadequate computer literate teachers; high cost of purchasing computers in schools; inadequate
    facilities to support full application of the ICT and lack of fund. It was therefore recommended that government should increase the funding of the education sector. There should also be periodic training for teachers on computer and ICT skills acquisition.

    6) Adenuga, R. Alaba, Owoyele, Jimoh Wale and Adenuga, F. T. (2012). Gender and socio-economic background differentials in students’ attitude to information and communication technology education in Nigerian secondary schools: Implications for policy, ICT education and counseling. International Journal of Psychology and Counselling Vol. 4(5), pp. 54 – 58, May 2012
    This is a study of gender and socio-economic background differentials in students’ attitude to information and communication technology education in Nigerian secondary schools. The aim was to determine students’ differential attitude to information and communication technology education in order to proffer appropriate counselling interventions for the advancement of information and communication technology (ICT) education among Nigerian adolescents. This study used descriptive survey research design involving a sample of 500 respondents. Data collection was done using a socio-demographic form and the ICT Attitudinal Scale (ICTAS) developed by the researchers. The instrument yielded 0.91 and 0.86 index of reliability and internal consistency respectively. While the results indicated poor attitude towards ICT education, no significant gender and socio-economic differentials was observed in students’ attitude to ICT education. Thus, it was recommended that stakeholders in education especially, administrators, lecturers and counsellors should device appropriate means of fostering students’ positive attitude to ICT education.

    7) Fidelis Egoeze, Sanjay Misra, Ibrahim Akman and Ricardo Colomo-Palacios (2014). An Evaluation of ICT Infrastructure and Application in Nigeria Universities Acta Polytechnica Hungarica Vol. 11, No. 9, 2014
    The need for adequate ICT infrastructure/facility in higher education institutions cannot be overemphasized, even as availability and utilization of these facilities are at times the indices for rating universities. In this descriptive survey study, ICT infrastructure and the extent of usage in Nigeria universities were investigated. Questionnaire was the instrument used for gathering information and based on related literature. A total of 452 respondents comprised of students, lecturers and administrators randomly selected from a total of 15 universities from different regions of Nigeria participated. Data collected were analyzed using mean statistic analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA).

    8) Apagu, V.V., Bala Adamu Wakili (2015). Availability and Utilization of Ict Facilities for Teaching and Learning of Vocational and Technical Education in Yobe State Technical Colleges. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER) Volume-04, Issue-02, pp-113-118
    This study examines the availability and utilization, the benefits and challenges of ICT facilities in teaching and learning vocational and technical education in Yobe state technical college. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The study revealed that ICT facilities were lacking in technical colleges. Teachers and Students exposure to ICT facilities was low. The study revealed that some of the benefits of using ICT in technical college include making teaching and learning interesting; helping teacher to be up to date in enhancing the quality of work of both teachers and students. Despite these benefits, the study revealed some of the challenges facing ICT as: irregular power supply; inadequate computer literate teachers; inadequate ICT facilities. It was therefore, recommended that Yobe state government should increase the funding of education sector to cater for ICT programme in technical colleges and there should be periodic training for teachers on ICT computer skills acquisition.

    9) Rising John Osazuwa (2011).The Effect of ICT, Research and Education Network in Improving the Quality of Research and Higher Education Management Information System Unit University of Ibadan Nigeria risingosazuwa@gmail.com, risingosazuwa@yahoo.com
    Africa has very high capacity strengthening needs. Strategic approach to harmonizing the existing and future research capacity strengthening programmes is required. ICT and good management are indispensable keys to enhance the capacity African higher education to provide quality training, conduct high caliber research and produced skilled graduates for the labour market. Research and Education Network (REN) help to foster information exchange among researchers, facilitate the interactions and collaboration of researchers to produce high quality research and world class institutions. REN and deployment of ICT driven collaboration in teaching and research is developing the next generation networking and applications in research and higher education. Solving the Next Generation problem require highly trained academics, administrators, students and graduates working within functional tertiary institution and collaborating through local and international networks. Improved and affordable regional and international connectivity will enable African researchers and higher education institutions to generate a proportionate amount of intellectual property goods to achieve parity with the rest of the world, with higher return on investment. Research and Educational Network is a platform of synergy, growth and development for increased collaboration, cost effective application of resources, improved infrastructure and capacity building. It enables institutions to collectively own and achieve what would have been impossible for a single institution to attain, as result of expertise and cost.

    10) Aremu, Moses Adebayo (2014). Impacts of the Use of ICT in English Language Pedagogy on Nigeria’s National Development. International Journal of English Language and Linguistics Research Vol.2,No.1, pp.56-68, June 2014
    This paper examines the impacts of ICT in English Language pedagogy on Nigeria’s national development through a questionnaire administered among one hundred and eighty students from six Nigerian federal government colleges. Stratified random sampling technique was employed in gathering the data. The findings revealed that ICT usage in Nigerian education is reducing illiteracy and poverty and is also improving the nation’s technology; there is significant relation between ICT in education and national development; and ICT in English Language pedagogy helps develop Nigeria’s economy. It was recommended that government needs to curb the misuse of this automated and digital tool, and also improve the nation’s power sector as well as developing positive attitude to supplying of automated gadgets for English Language teaching.

    11) Olumuyiwa Viatonu, Elusakin Titus Kayode (2013).Improving the Teaching and Learning of English Language Through the Use of Information and Communication Technology: Prospects and Challenges Michael Otedola College of Primary Education (Nigeria) oluviat@yahoo.com, tkelusakin@yahoo.com
    The impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on language learning has been acknowledged globally such that the integration of ICT in language learning has become indispensable in today’s teaching learning environment. This is because of the fundamental role it plays in the advancement of the frontiers of knowledge in language learning. This is more so when the world is fast becoming a global village where the use of modern technological gadgets to improve language learning has become imperative. This paper examines some stereotyped but strenuous methods of language learning and highlights some of the prospects (expanding access to and improving the quality of teaching and learning, enhancing language competence and learners’ interaction and verbalization, among others) derivable from using ICT for optimal performance. Some of the challenges (no internet facilities, erratic power supply, overcrowded classrooms and so on) facing the use of ICT in language learning in a developing country like Nigeria are also discussed. Provision of internet facilities in schools, regular supply of electricity are some of the recommendations made to improve language learning through ICT.

    11) Akinbode, J. O. (2014). The impacts of information communication technology (ICT) on the Teaching and Learning of English as a Second Language in Nigerian Secondary Schools
    The roles of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in the trend of English Language teaching and learning are enormous. These include globalisation of the teaching and learning of English Language, the use of technology to make teaching and learning of English as a Second Language communicative and functional and the development of the trendy English Language teacher. This study in consonance with the foregoing is aimed at examining the impacts of Information Communication Technology (ICT) on the teaching and learning of English as a Second Language in Nigerian secondary schools.

    12) Akintunde, Femi A. and Angulu Yakubu Danlami (2015). The Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Teaching and Learning of English Language in Nigeria. Journal of Literature, Languages and Linguistics Vol.15, 2015
    The importance and impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on English language learning in Nigeria cannot be overemphasize as it has been acknowledged globally that the integration of ICT in language learning has become indispensable in modern day learning environment. This is because of the major role it plays in the advancement and development of the frontiers of knowledge in language learning. This is more so when the world is fast becoming a global village where the use of modern technological gadgets to improve language learning has become imperative. This paper examines the importance and use of ICT in language learning and highlights some of the prospects from the plethora of using ICT for optimal performance. Some of the problems which include no internet facilities, erratic power supply, overcrowded classrooms, lack of computer knowledge and so on facing the use of ICT in language learning in a developing country like Nigeria are also discussed. Teaching of computer courses, provision of internet facilities in schools, regular supply of electricity are some of the recommendations made to improve language learning through ICT.

    13) Beebe, M. (2005). Impact of ICT Revolution on the African Academic Landscape CODESRIA Conference on Electronic Publishing and Dissemination Dakar, Senegal 1-2 September http://www.codesria.org/Links/conferences/el_publ/beebe.pdf
    Beebe addresses the impact of ICT innovation within African teaching and learning processes. The relationship between the form of ICT along with the context and the impact of users underpinned with the global changing technological dependence. Global trends impact not only on the nation but on the people involved in terms of what they have access to and how they perceive the necessary uses of ICT. This paper not only addresses education but also national policy and the transforming ICT within education and within Africa. Although a broad stance is taken, it also brings to the fore the issues surrounding changing technologies, communications and education within society.

    14) Kossick R (2003).The Role of Information & Communications Technology in Strengthening Citizen Participation & Shaping Democracy: An Analysis of Mexico’s Initial Experience & Pending Challenges Information Technology in Developing Countries, A Newsletter of IFIP Working Group 9.4, Vol 13, No.1
    Although this article has an immediate focus on citizen participation and empowerment through involvement in policy making and governance, it draws on large aspects related to this title. It uses the example of Mexico to illustrate work done with citizen participation and democracy with the use of ICT to elevate people’s significance within the population. This paper relates mostly to a more political context while holding a strong technical approach along with highlighting challenges involved in incorporating ICT into a developing context, whether it be politically or even economically, the social implications are much the same as through education.

    15) Burns, M. (2002). From black and white to color: Technology, professional development and changing practice. THE Journal, 29(11), 36-41.
    The author, an educational technologist with the South Central Regional Technology in Education Consortium, provides K-12 educators with professional development focused on creating technology-infused, learner-centered classrooms. The article is very practical in nature, providing a concrete example of a two-year professional development program that increased the level of classroom technology integration and created a more learner-centered environment. This model of professional development is worthy of emulation for three reasons: it emphasizes teacher comfort with technology instead of proficiency, it focuses on managing the classroom with limited technological resources, and it models the type of instruction with technology that it advocates. Within this framework, teachers become learners working with technology on a curriculum-related task. Teachers report that the approach has allowed them to learn technology and to incorporate it into their teaching. Most importantly, the paper provides adequate explanation of the professional development program, so that it can be implemented in other districts.

    16) Bybee, R. W. (2001). Effective professional development for technology teachers. The Technology Teacher, 61(3), 26-29.
    In this concise essay, Bybee, the Executive Director of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, provides insight into the design and implementation of professional development for the teaching of and with technology. The recommendations and uncomplicated tone of the paper appeal to the novice technology professional developer and the more experienced designer in need of an uncomplicated technology professional development refresher. The aim of this paper is not to demonstrate or describe a program that has been successful, but rather to identify the many possibilities that exist in designing effective technology professional development. The underlying design principles for effective professional development have been adapted specifically for technology education, but are based on the design process of: Goals, Plan, Do, Reflect. To conclude, Bybee includes a functional list of alternative ways to design and deliver technology professional development.

    17) Bybee, R. W., & Loucks-Horsley, S. (2000). Advancing technology education: The role of professional development. The Technology Teacher, 60(2), 31-34.
    This article is an overview of the role of professional development in technology integration with the target audiences being the K-12 teacher, administrator, or technology specialist interested in a concise and practical paper. Both authors are well known for their contributions to education and have worked extensively in the realm of technology professional development. This paper does not describe or evaluate one professional development program in particular, but relies upon the authors’ vast experiences and the existing literature to illustrate four vital components to developing effective technology professional development. The authors accurately posit that learning about technology; learning to teach technology; self assessment and continuous improvement; and comprehensive, sustained professional development programs are requirements if success is to be achieved. They provide useful examples and explanations of these needs throughout ICT Professional Development 3 the paper and stress the relationship between technology standards and professional development. The paper presents an ideal framework for developing a technology staff development program.

    18) Kessell, S. R. & Gaynor, I. W. (2002). Creating an authentic online learning environment: Teaching ICT to teachers. Linking Learners: ACEC 2002 Conference Proceedings.

    This well-researched and comprehensive paper focuses on a professional development initiative undertaken by staff at Curtin University in Australia. In attempting to encourage a wide variety of K-12 teachers to integrate information computer technology into their classrooms, the authors created an online course exposing instructors to multimedia, computing, communication tools, Internet searches, and professional reading. The authors later altered the course to meet the needs of wider audiences, and the course now exists in several different forms, including an eighteen-month graduate certificate program and a one-semester short course. Participants in all of these courses build their level of confidence with information computer technology and learn how to apply information computer technology in their classrooms. Unfortunately, the authors’ free modules are no longer available; however, linking to the address provided in the article is still beneficial.

    19) Sheumaker, F., Slate, J. R., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2001). The role of InTech training in the integration of technology into instructional practices among Georgia middle school teachers. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 33(5)
    This article evaluates the effectiveness of a staff development program (InTech) for Georgia middle school teachers with a focus on constructivist technology integration. Unfortunately, the article lacks any description of the program whatsoever, thereby limiting its usefulness. Without a program description, the paper does not offer enough information to allow readers to implement a similar type of program, which limits the target audience to primarily other researchers. It was found that teachers who had participated in InTech training did have their students utilize technology more often and that they incorporated presentation software to a greater degree than teachers who had not participated in the professional development. The authors claim that this evidence proves the value of the program. However, the data in no way demonstrates that a more constructivist learning environment is being created through the use of technology, which is one of the program’s goals. The main benefit of this paper is that it provides a framework from which other researchers may evaluate the effectiveness of a professional development program.

    20) Strehle, E. L., Whatley, A., Kurz, K. A., & Hausfather, S. J. (2001). Narratives of
    collaboration: Inquiring into technology integration in teacher education. Journal of
    Technology and Teacher Education, 10(1), 27-47.
    The authors of this article are teacher educators who came together to examine their own technology professional development needs following an administrative mandate to increase their level of technology use in teaching. It is an excellent example of what can be done by teachers to improve technology integration if they are offered a limited formal professional development program. The paper describes an action research project in which the authors met on a regular basis throughout the term to discuss and synthesize their technology integration experiences. Through the use of narratives and study groups, the authors were able to identify common themes about technology integration and, most importantly, make three conclusions. First, they found that there must exist a match between use of technology and instructional goals. Second, technology integration was complicated and difficult. Third, through the narratives and study groups, they were able to offer support to one another and learn new pedagogical approaches. This article demonstrates how teachers can make positive changes in their teaching with technology through collaboration with peers. It is not a complete framework for school or district-wide professional development, but the strategies employed could constitute one aspect of a more robust professional development program.

    1. This is good but You actually repeated number 11. But not the same work.

      “11) Olumuyiwa Viatonu, Elusakin Titus Kayode (2013).Improving the Teaching and Learning of English Language Through the……
      11) Akinbode, J. O. (2014). The impacts of information communication technology (ICT) on the Teaching and Learning of….”
      They are two different works.
      Keep this hard work on.


    Being a paper presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Course MAC 981 (Technological Advances), Department of Mass Communication, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University (COOU), Igbariam for the award of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Mass Communication.

    Lecturer: Dr. Chinenye Nwabueze


    Tony Onyima

    March, 2018

    1. Okonedo, S., Amusa, O. I., Bakare, O. D., Bamigboye, O. B. & Alawiye,
    M. K. (2014). ICT Influence on Globalization of Library and
    Information Services Delivery in Academic Libraries in South
    West, Nigeria. Information and Knowledge Management, Vol. 4, No
    12, 2014 pp. 205-212

    This paper examined the influence of ICT on globalization of library and information services delivery in academic libraries in south-west, Nigeria. Seven public universities were randomly selected from the geo-political zone of Nigeria. Respondents were library officers and librarians working in the selected university libraries. A total of 130 copies of the questionnaire were administered on the respondents out of which 99 were returned and found useable for the data analysis. Data collected on the study were analyzed using simple percentages. The result reveals that the respondents are fully aware of what globalization entails and the benefits accruing from it to academic libraries. The libraries studied are automated, though only few of them are fully automated; the library softwares used are Koha, Virtual, Alice and Millennium. The most difficult challenges faced by the respondents in the use of ICT, according to the authors, among other challenges are erratic power supply and low bandwidth.

    2. Offiah, E. I. (2011). The Effect of Globalization and Information
    Communication Technologies (ICTs) on Human Resources Management
    Practice in Nigerian Organizations. An unpublished MBA thesis,
    Department of Management,Faculty of Business Administration,
    University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus. http://www.unn.edu.ng
    /publications/files/images/Effect. Retrieved on 16-03-2018

    The author sought to evaluate the effect of globalization and Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) on human resources management practice in Nigerian organizations. Three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Utilizing the survey method of research designs, the author collected data from the human resource departments of fifteen multi-national and large organizations operating within Enugu and its suburbs. The major finding of the study indicated that globalization and ICTs bring about wider sources of skilled labour, lead to job creation, attract foreign jobs, give access to global culture, to potentially large applicant pool, attract people who have skills, knowledge, and ability needed to achieve goals and encourages global outsourcing. On the negative side, the study found out that globalization and ICTs bring about downsizing, which has adverse effects on individuals and on the economy. The author concluded that globalization and Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) have positive effect on human resources management practice in Nigerian organizations and recommended that organizations should embrace globalization and ICTs as it encourages efficiency and effectiveness in the operation of an organization.

    3. Cornali, F. & Tirocchi, S. (2012). Globalization, Education,
    Information and Communication Technologies: What Relationships
    and Reciprocal Influences?. Procedia – Social and Behavioral
    Sciences. Vol. 47, 2012, pp. 2060-2069
    /pii/S1877042812026857. Retrieved on 16-03-2018

    Globalization – described as a structural phenomenon of increasing interdependence among various parts of the world – has produced a variety of economic, cultural, and social changes that have shaped the world over the past 50 years. Without doubt this process was favored by development and pervasiveness of digital technologies, that make the communications faster and the information more easily sharable. Globalization has had a relevant impact also in the educational field: the convergence of models of educational organizations, the internationalization of key competencies definition and the diffusion of large-scale assessment of student’s performance (PISA-OECD), are only a few of more relevant aspects of this process. This paper explored the main features of globalization in education with a particular focus on role played by the new information and communication technologies (ICT). In a globalized world characterized by a convergence culture, the authors concluded that school systems should work in order to integrate ICT in ordinary learning processes, that means: to give new competencies and skills, to experiment new didactic models based on social media and web 2.0 tools, to contribute to the construction of a new digital literacy directed at the critical uses of digital media, in order to understand how the technologies work, and how they may affect our global life.

    4. Walsham, G. (2008). ICTs and Global Working in a Non-Flat World. In
    Barrett, M.; Davidson, E.; Middleton, C.; DeGross, J. (Eds),
    Information Technology in the Service Economy: Challenges and
    Possibilities for the 21st Century (pp. 13-25). Boston: Springer.

    Walsham, a professor of management studies at Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, in this paper rejected the hypothesis of Thomas Friedman that ICT-enabled globalization is driving us toward a flat world. Instead, he argued that the world remains uneven, full of seams, culturally heterogeneous, locally specific, inequitable, not well integrated and constantly changing. This argument is supported by an analysis of three areas of ICT-enabled global working, namely global software outsourcing, global Information System (IS) rollout, and global virtual teams. The paper then built on these analyses to put forward an agenda for future IS research on ICTs and global working based on three research themes: identity and cross-cultural working; globalization, localization and standardization; and power, knowledge, and control. The paper concluded that the area of ICTs and global working offers the IS field a major research opportunity to make a significant contribution to our understanding of a set of crucial issues in our more globalized world.

    5. Farhadi, M.; Ismail, R.; & Fooladi, M. (2012). Information and
    Communication Technology Use and Economic Growth. PLoS One: 2012;
    7(11); e48903

    In recent years, progress in information and communication technology (ICT) has caused many structural changes such as reorganizing of economics, globalization, and trade extension, which leads to capital flows and enhancing information availability. Moreover, ICT plays a significant role in development of each economic sector, especially during liberalization process. Growth economists predict that economic growth is driven by investments in ICT. However, empirical studies on this issue have produced mixed results, regarding to different research methodology and geographical configuration of the study. The authors examined the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use on economic growth using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach and applied it to 159 countries over the period 2000 to 2009. The results indicated that there is a positive relationship between growth rate of real GDP per capita and ICT use index (as measured by the number of internet users, fixed broadband internet subscribers and the number of mobile subscription per 100 inhabitants). The authors also found that the effect of ICT use on economic growth is higher in high-income group rather than other groups. This implies that if these countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate ICT use.

    6. Rudenko, E. (2018). Augmented Reality is shaping the Future of
    Finance. https://www.businessamlive.com/augmented-reality-
    is-shaping-the-future-of-finance/ Retrieved on 18/03/2018

    Augmented reality (AR) and artificial intelligence (AI) are all aspects of technological advances driving different kinds of developments in the world today. In this article, the author, a senior online marketing manager for Oxagile, a custom software development company, explored how augmented reality is shaping the future of finance. AR is a technology that superimposes a computer-generated image on a user’s view of the real world, thus providing a composite view. Augmented reality is already entering everyday life. Based on the ubiquitous smartphone, AR is appearing in consumer-oriented applications including games, finance and entertainment. In business, cloud access sets AR users free from hardware, and allows businesses to link the data-crunching power of the computer with human judgment and expertise.
    Nowhere is this more pronounced than in financial technology. The sector is booming and AR is the next logical step in the process of making finance run on new technology. AR will transfigure both business and consumer finance tech, though in different ways. The effect is strongest in millennials and younger people, who often say they look to Google, PayPal and Apple for new financial products rather than to banks. In fact 33 percent of this age group expect to handle their finances without a traditional bank at all. The tools — smartphone, credit card — are in users’ pockets already, so the jump to AR is easier to negotiate. And it’s probably in payment systems that consumer-facing AR will find its first finance tech application. Augmented reality is uniquely suited to finance tech’s needs. More, it’s come along at the right time to be baked into the industry’s source code. It’s already finding applications including data analysis, client meetings, consumer services and banking, the author concluded.

    7. Rajasingham, L. (2009). The Impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI)
    Systems on Future University Paradigms. MERLOT Journal of Online
    Learning and Teaching. Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009.

    This paper explored the potential of artificial intelligent (AI) systems in the university’s core functions of teaching, learning and knowledge nexus, against the background of rapid technological change, globalization and challenges facing universities to respond to societies’ needs in the knowledge age. As knowledge and innovation will drive competitive economic advantage in increasingly Internet defined infrastructures, the author contended that a new university paradigm is needed where telecommunications and computers replace roads, buildings and transport technology that underpinned the industrial university that operated in the industrial age. As the Internet, a global communication tool continues to impact on all human activities and enterprise changing the way we shop, bank, do business, entertain ourselves, communicate and think, the author argued that it is also radically changing how, when and what we learn. This paper introduced the idea of a HyperClass based on HyperReality, an advanced form of distributed virtual reality where physical reality and virtual reality, and human intelligence and artificial intelligence intermesh and interact to provide anyone, anywhere and anytime learning.

    8. Baciu, C.; Opre, D.; & Riley, S. (2016). A New Way of Thinking in the
    Era of Virtual Reality and Artificial Intelligence.
    https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303818717_ Retrieved on

    A few decades ago terms like cyberspace, virtual reality and artificial intelligence were used more often in science fiction literature. But now we can see that these terms are part of today’s mainstream scientific and academic conversation and literature. One of the reasons for this terminology inflation could be the development of science and technology at a very accelerated rate. Is contemporary society ready to assimilate all these developments and acquisitions? What impact will they have on real life activities of common citizens? How will we relate toward a computer or a humanoid robot when they become smarter than us, for example? Will we perceive it like a device or will we treat it similar to a human being? Are we ready to live and to be real in a virtual world? How would we change our way of thinking (Faggella, 2013) what kind of politics and regulations should be developed as our society becomes adjusted to all these challenges? These issues and more are what the authors explored in this paper. The authors concluded that there is the need to acknowledge these changes and to prepare for their increased emergence into our day-to-day lives.

    9. Sidiq, M.; Lanker, T.; & Makhdoomi, K. (2017). Augmented Reality Vs
    Virtual Reality. International Journal of Computer Science and
    Mobile Computing. Vol. 6, Issue. 6, pp. 324-327

    Technology is advancing at a brisk pace, as many things that were not possible a few years ago are possible now. Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) are part of these advanced and innovative forms of technologies that were thought as a part of fiction even a few years ago. But now they are a vital part of the daily reality. The biggest confusion in the world is the difference between Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality. The authors in this defined the differences and advantages of these emerging technologies. According to them Augmented Reality is a synthetic, computer simulated reality or recreation of a real-time environment where a user can interact with the replicated real environments, whereas Virtual Reality is completely immersive. It immerses the user by making them feel that they are experiencing the real environment not the simulated one by means of auditive, visual, and tactual simulations. Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) Optical Head-Mounted Displays (OHMDs) are on the brink of becoming commodity hardware available to the users and is easy to use as a tool for 3D activities. Some OHMDs include front-facing cameras, enabling Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) functionality. Apart from avoiding clash with the surroundings, interaction with virtual objects may also be affected by seeing the real environment.

    10. Wisskirchen, G., Biacabe, B. T., Bormann, U., Muntz, A., Niehaus,
    G.,Soler, G. J., & Brauchitsh, B. (2017). Artificial
    Intelligence and Robotics and Their Impact on the Workplace.
    International Bar Association (IBA) Global Employment Institute
    report, April 2017.

    Founded in 2010, the IBA Global Employment Institute (GEI) seeks to develop a global and strategic approach to the legal issues affecting human resources for multinationals and worldwide institutions. In addition to regularly updating existing reports, the advisory board publishes new reports concerning current legal issues every year.
    In 2017 the advisory board presented its first report on ‘Artificial Intelligence and Robotics and Their Impact on the Workplace’. The Working Group, coordinated by GEI Vice-Chair for Multinationals Gerlind Wisskirchen, focused on future trends concerning the impact of intelligent systems on the labour market and some corresponding legal problems. The group agreed that Artificial intelligence (AI) would have a fundamental impact on the global labour market in the next few years. The authors discussed legal, economic and business issues, such as changes in the future labour market and in company structures, impact on working time, remuneration and on the working environment, new forms of employment and the impact on labour relations.
    Will intelligent algorithms and production robots lead to mass unemployment? By way of some examples, the authors showed how AI would change the world of work fundamentally. In addition to companies, employees, lawyers and society, educational systems and legislators are also facing the task of meeting the new challenges that result from constantly advancing technology.

    11. Schmarzo, B. (2017). Artificial Intelligence, Globalization and
    International Basketball. Data Science Central. Retrieved on

    Elon Musk, one of America’s foremost technology advocates, predicts that countries seeking leadership and domination from artificial intelligence will be the basis for World War III. In an article published on Data Science Central, an online resource portal for big data practitioners, the author argued, “its great when other countries just blindly buy whatever we’re selling, but globalization eventually creates a level playing field. In fact, countries with a strong vision and commitment to investing in future technologies can excel in a world more and more driven by globalization. And while there may be some people that want to put the “globalization genie” back in the bottle, it ain’t happening!”
    So in order for countries to better prepare for the effects of globalization on artificial intelligence, it is useful to understand the drivers of globalization. And there is no better example of the effects of globalization than what happened in the world of international basketball, the author contended. Globalization had caught up with USA basketball. The international basketball players had gotten significantly better, and the USA could no longer dominate the Olympics with amateurs. Driving the globalization of international basketball were some key factors, similar factors that will be the drivers of the globalization of artificial intelligence. The author listed some of these factors to include increased awareness driven by televised basketball games, widespresd availability of basketball education and skills training and improvements in the capabilities of international coaching and personal trainers who were learning training best practices via conferences and foreign exchange programs.

    12. Lohr, S. (2017). A. I. Will Transform the Economy. But How Much, and
    How Soon? The New York Times, November 30, 2017.

    There are basically three big questions about artificial intelligence and its impact on the economy: What can it do? Where is it headed? And how fast will it spread? In an article published in The New York Times, the author offered answers to these questions by reviewing three new research reports from Stanford University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Mckinsey Global Institute. According to him these three reports combined to suggest these answers: It can probably do less right now than you think. But it will eventually do more than you probably think, in more places than you probably think, and will probably evolve faster than powerful technologies have in the past.
    Researchers across disciplines are scrambling to understand the likely trajectory, reach and influence of the technology — already finding its way into things like self-driving cars and image recognition online — in all its dimensions. Doing so raises a host of challenges of definition and measurement, because the field is moving quickly — and because companies are branding things A.I. for marketing purposes.

    13. Pwc. (2017). The Economic Impact of Artificial Intelligence on UK
    Economy. https://www.pwc.co.uk/economic-services
    /assets/ai-uk-report-v2.pdf. Retrieved on 19/03/2018

    In this insightful report published in June 2017, PriceWaterCooper (pwc) argued that Artificial Intelligence (AI) could transform the productivity and GDP potential of the UK landscape, but it cautioned that the country needs to take the necessary steps to invest in the different types of AI technology in order to realize the potential gains. For instance, the consulting firm projected that UK’s GDP will be up to 10.3% higher in 2030 as a result of AI – the equivalent of an additional £232bn– making it one of the biggest commercial opportunities in today’s fast-changing economy. The impact over the period will come from productivity gains (1.9%) and consumption-side product enhancements and new firm entry stimulating demand (8.4%). The report also predicted significant gains across all UK regions, with England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland all seeing an impact from AI in 2030 at least as large as 5% of GDP, and extra spending power per household of up to £1,800-£2,300 a year by 2030.

    14. Chandrasekhar, C. P., & Ghosh, J. (2001). Information and
    Communication Technologies and Health in Low Income Countries:
    The Potentials and Constraints. Bulletin of the World Health
    Organization, 2001,79: 850–855

    Using positive experiences in India, the authors outlined the potentials and constraints offered by technological progress in the information and communication technologies (ICTs) industries for the health sector in developing countries. According to the authors, development of ICTs can bring about improvements in health in developing countries in at least three ways: as an instrument for continuing education they enable health workers to be informed of and trained in advances in knowledge; they can improve the delivery of health and disaster management services to poor and remote locations; and they can increase the transparency and efficiency of governance, which should, in turn, improve the availability and delivery of publicly provided health services. These potential benefits of ICTs do not necessarily require all the final beneficiaries to be reached directly, thus the cost of a given quantum of effect is reduced. Some current experiments in India, such as the use of Personal Digital Assistants by rural health workers in Rajasthan, the disaster management project in Maharashtra and the computerized village offices in Andhra Pradesh and Pondicherry, suggest creative ways of using ICTs to improve the health conditions of local people. However, the basic difficulties encountered in using ICTs for such purposes are: an inadequate physical infrastructure; insufficient access by the majority of the population to the hardware; and a lack of the requisite skills for using them.

    15. Kelley, R. (2005). Globalization and Health: Great Possibilities,
    Great Concerns.https://www.healio.com/orthopedics/business-of-
    orthopedics/news/print/orthopedics-today. Retrieved on

    While the globalization of health care offers tremendous possibilities for good, such as a rapid response to catastrophes, it also can give rise to a new concern, such as a quicker spread of disease. In this paper, the author reviewed the opinions of some experts on the progress and setbacks of globalization on health.
    The effect of globalization on health systems and individuals is complex. At first glance, many people would say that globalization has had an overall positive impact on peoples’ health. In many ways, that is true. For instance, global transportation and the communications revolution enable rapid response to epidemics and catastrophes, saving thousands of lives. But there also is a downside to the health and well-being of people as a direct or indirect result of globalization. The flip side of the above example is that due to the rapid mobility of people across borders, the spread of infectious diseases is a threat to everyone, particularly the poor. The author quoted Daulaire to buttress this point: “Today, no microbe in the world is more than 24 hours away from the gateways of every industrialized country, and what incubates today in the tropical rain forest can emerge tomorrow in a temperate suburb.” Nevertheless, Daulaire noted that globalization is neither inherently good nor bad, but rather an inexorable force that needs to be understood and channeled for human well-being.

  17. Genevieve Nwedo-Nzeribe


    1.Deninger Dennis (2012). ‘Sports on Television: The How and Why Behind What You See’ London: Routledge.

    In Sports on Television, Dennis Deninger provides an all-encompassing view of the sports television industry. He progresses from the need for this book, to the history of the industry and discipline, to the pioneering events of sports broadcasting and sports television, to a nuts-and bolts, behind-the-scenes look at a sports television production. All the while, he examines the impact that sports and the mass media have had and are continuing to have on one another and on society. The book is a good practical guide that puts the sports media in perspective. I’m hoping that everyone who reads this book will forever watch sports on TV in a different way.” -What makes this textbook even more valuable is his clear, concise and fluid writing style as well as his enthusiasm for the material. Students, and even general readers, will gain much useful information and insight from this outstanding work. Having served as coordinating producer for ESPN’s coverage of World Cup Soccer and for major tennis events around the world, Dennis brings an international perspective to the subject.

    2. Holmes, S. U. and Jermyn, Deborah. (2004). ‘Understanding Reality Television’ California: Psychology Press
    In this book, the authors see Reality Television as ‘Popular Factual Programming’ that has rapidly come to occupy a place at the forefront of contemporary television culture on an international scale. Tracing the history of reality TV from Candid Camera to The Osbournes, the 302 paged ‘Understanding Reality Television’ examines a range of programmes which claim to depict ‘real life’, from reality formatted game shows to ‘real crime’ programming and make-over TV. The authors discuss the phenomena of reality TV in the context of the debates it has introduced to our social, cultural and televisual agendas, such as the definition of celebrity, surveillance and the politics of representation. The reach of the book is expansive, beginning with industry and labor issues involved in producing reality television, ending with global politics and distribution, with smart, incisive analyses of histories, identity, affect, and subjectivities in between. After several decades of reality television and scholarship that investigates it, this book offers a convincing, important, and timely contribution to the field.

    3.Bury, Rhiannon, and Johnson Li. (2013). ‘Is it Live or is it Time-shifted, Streamed or Downloaded? Watching television in the era of multiple screens’ New Media & Society: 1-19
    This survey studied the preferred mode of viewing against age, sex and county, looking at live television viewing, online viewing and mobile viewing. It took into account the theoretical framework of digital convergence and suggested three modes of specific stages of digital convergence, identified as time shifting, online viewing and mobile viewing. The younger cohorts reported using online streaming practices more than the older cohorts and watching less live television streaming than their older cohorts. This analysis suggests that television practice is changing based on age, and if this trend continues and shapes consumer culture, existing media practices will change and will help shape my discussion on the future of television viewing practices.
    These three are replacements for;
    MacDonald, J. F. (1992) ‘Blacks and White TV: African Americans in Television since 1948’ 2nd ed. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, repeated in batch three as number 3.
    Then, Khalil, O. E. and M. M. Elkordy, M. M. (1997) ‘The Relationship of Some Personal and Situational Factors to is Effectiveness: Empirical Evidence from Egypt.’ Journal of Global Information Management Vol. 5, no. 2, and Stephan, A.M. (2013). ‘2013 NETFLIX STRATEGIC ANALYSIS.’ AMS Consulting. <http://www.alysonstephan.net/uploads/Netflix_Strategic_Analysis.pdf&gt, numbers 8 & 15 in batch two which are both not in accordance with my area of interest.

    1. Good. You have shown you are practically ready to tackle any academic challenge successfully.
      Well done.


    Being a paper presented to the Department of Mass Communication, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University (COOU), Igbariam in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Course MAC 981 (Technological Advances), for the award of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Mass Communication.

    Lecturer: Dr. Chinenye Nwabueze


    Tony Onyima

    March, 2018

    1. Wilson 111, E. J. (1998) Globalization, Information Technology and Conflict in the Second and Third Worlds: A Critical Review of the Literature. Issuelab, Jan. 1, 1998

    Based on a review of current research, the author explored the impact of information technology and the globalization of news on ethnic and class conflicts in developing societies, on international responses to them, and on conflict management and human rights.

    2. Okafor, F; and Etchie Peter, T. P. (2014). Globalization and the Social Formations of Third World Countries. Afro Asian Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 5, 5.2 Quarter 11 2014

    Globalization has really impacted the social formation of the Third world countries. While some of these impacts are positive and others negative, one cannot deny the fact that no matter the perspective of one’s analysis, the grip of globalization is simply
    overwhelming just as it is so demanding and challenging. Incidentally, the Third World social formation is part of this new global arrangement. The authors in this paper examined the ways in which globalization has impacted on the social formation of Third World states through its various agents. They argued that despite the changes ushered in by the forces of globalization Third World countries are still facing developmental challenges and that unless urgent and sincere measures are taken, Third World countries would be totally overrun by the reality of this raging trend thereby making their development an impossibility.

    3. Farazmand, A. (1999). Globalization and Public Administration. Public
    Administration Review, Vol. 59, No. 6

    This article discussed globalization and its implications for public administration. Using a political economy approach, the author analysed the different meanings and perspectives of globalization, the causes and consequences and the underpinnings or constitutive elements of globalization, a phenomenon that is all embracing far-reaching implications for society, governance, and public administration. Causes of globalization were discussed, such as the economic factors of surplus accumulation, corporate reorganization, shift of corporate power structure, global money and financialization, global state and administration, domestic decline, rising human expectations, innovations, and global supranational organizations such as the United Nations. Consequences of globalization are discussed, including the positive impact such as continuity and persistence of the state and public administration, but also its negative consequences such as threat to democracy and community, increasing corruption, and elite empowerment. Then a discussion was made of the converging, hegemonic global order with a question of possible counter-hegemonic model that might alter the dominant world order. Finally, the article presented a number of significant implications-positive and negative-for public administration as a theory and practice, from both American and comparative/international perspectives.

    4. Welge M.K., Borghoff T. (2009) The Contributions of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to the Globalization Process of Firms. In Schmid S. (eds) Management der Internationalisierung. Gabler

    The development of global competitive structures implies both, a decreasing role of boundaries and an increasing density of global competition. According to the authors this process causes a global “liquefaction” of competition with an increasing number of autonomous economic actors such as small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or decentralized units of multinational enterprises (MNEs) that both co-operate and compete in the global context (Welge/Borghoff 2003). The unfolding network competition is marked by an increasing extension and density of economic interactions and interdependencies on a global scale.

    5. Beccalli, E. (2006). Information Technology and Economic Performance: Some Evidence from the EU Banking Industry. Proceedings of Financial
    Management Association, 2006 – researchgate.net

    The author investigated the performance of Information Technology (IT) investments for a sample of 737 European banks over the period 1994-2000, giving a pooled total sample of 4,459 observations. The aim is to investigate whether IT investments improve banks’ profitability: do banks gain a competitive advantage from IT investments, and therefore higher profits in the short and long term? The relationship between IT investments and traditional accounting performance measures showed the lack of a clear association, consistently with some prior studies. To overcome the limitations of this traditional approach, the author employed a different specification of the performance measure. He employed a measure of operational productivity, the so called X-efficiency, able to incorporate the various unobservable IT impacts. The empirical findings suggest that the impact of IT investments on banks’ X-efficiency is negative on the profitability side in the short term. However, the impact of IT on costs in the long term (known as technical change) has made a positive contribution across European banks, reducing the real annual cost of production by about 3.1%.

    6. Clemons, E. K., & Row, M. C. (2015) Information Technology and Industrial Cooperation: The Changing Economics of Coordination and Ownership, Journal of Management Information Systems, 9:2, 9-28, DOI:

    Cooperation is becoming increasingly important in the modern business environment. The resulting emergence of new forms of organizational relationships is challenging managers to understand the fundamental dynamics of cooperation in order to evaluate and restructure their industrial relationships. This paper applied transactions cost economics toward understanding cooperative relationships. Cooperation is viewed as an effort to increase resource utilization and value through higher explicit coordination of economic activities. However, increasing explicit coordination can create transaction risks: exposure to opportunistic behavior by the other party. Transaction risk limits the level of coordination that is achievable. Information technology can reduce the costs of coordination while also reducing the transaction risks associated with increased coordination, the authors contended. These dual effects suggest a move toward tightly coupled, cooperative relationships.

    7. Saker, L., Lee, K., Cannito, B., Gilmore, A., & Campbell-Lendrum, D. (2004). Globalization and Infectious Diseases: Review of the Linkages. Social,Economic and Behavioral Research, Special Topics No. 3

    Globalization is driven and constrained by a number of forces: economic processes, technological developments, political influences, cultural and value systems, and social and natural environmental factors. These varied forces, as part of the processes of globalization, impact directly and indirectly on health at a number of different levels. As globalization spreads across the world, there is much to be understood about how the wide-ranging changes are impacting on infectious diseases. This paper reviewed the existing evidence about the links between globalization and infectious diseases in terms of changes in disease distribution, transmission rate and, in some cases, management of disease. The overriding aim of the paper is to improve understanding of how globalization influences infectious diseases, particularly in the developing world.

    8. Evans, A. (2010). Globalization and Scarcity: Multilateralism for a world with Limits. Center on International Cooperation.

    Globalization has improved the living standards of hundreds of millions of people – but growing resource scarcity means it risks becoming a victim of its own success. Left unaddressed, scarcity of food, energy, water, land and other key ‘natural assets’ has the potential to trigger intensifying zero sum competition between states – in the process, increasing poverty, state fragility, economic instability, inflation, and strategic resource competition between major powers. According to the author, these scarcity challenges need to be understood as an integrated whole, not as separate issues. They share common drivers, including both rising demand – driven by a global population projected to reach an estimated 9.2 billion by mid century, and the increasing affluence of a growing ‘global middle class’ – and further signs that the supply of key resources will struggle to keep pace. All of them present the greatest risk to poor people and countries, which have the least capacity to cope with shocks or adapt to new realities. And all of them are linked together by complex and often poorly understood feedback loops, creating the risk of unexpected change, unintended consequences from policy, and multiplier effects that complicate attempts to manage risk.

    9. Seita, A. Y. (1997) Globalization and the Convergence of Values.
    Cornell International Law Journal: Vol. 30: Issue. 2, Article 5

    As the twentieth century came to a close, the circumstances of individual nations -their affairs, news, and problems – tended increasingly to reach and captivate global audiences. A predominant reason has been the economic importance of foreign countries. Greater numbers of domestic businesses, employees, and consumers have looked to foreign markets, investors, and products for economic prosperity as well as economic competition. While driven primarily by economic factors, the process of globalization – in which international issues become as important as national, state, and local matters – has significant political and other noneconomic content. Democracy and human rights are, for example, as much a part of globalization as are free market principles. While globalization has detrimental effects, they can be minimized through the cooperative efforts of the United States and the other industrialized democracies, which share basic economic and political values. The author strongly believes that America and its democratic allies should promote and carefully manage globalization, for it has significant beneficial implications for humanity. Globalization is causing, and being reinforced by, a worldwide convergence of economic and political values that portend a possible, though distant, future world in which human beings will look upon themselves as part of a single humane civilization comprised of a single human race.

    10. Ranis, G., Vreeland, J. R. & Kosack, S. eds (2006). Globalization and the Nation State: The Impact of the IMF and the World Bank. New York: Routledge.

    For decades, scholars have studied the economic determinants and effects of programs sponsored by the Bretton Woods institutions: the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. Much less systematic attention has been paid, however, to the political factors that influence these International Financial Institutions (IFIs). Recent methodological innovations in the study of why countries enter into IFI programs and with what effects, as well as newly available data, have led researchers to reevaluate conventional wisdom. This book presents the cutting edge of this research agenda, bringing together scholars working on various dimensions of the frontier. The contributors address a host of related questions that are highly politicized and often inspire heated public debate. Too often answers to them forfeit analytical clarity to ideological preference or unfounded opinion. This is not surprising, as the issues are vital to both scholars and policy makers, and rightly inspire passionate discussion. Yet this discussion rarely leads us to answers that are well thought through, let alone inspire consensus. This book builds on a growing scholarly literature that tries to approach these issues with thought and rigor.

  19. 1) Nwezeh, C.M.T. and Oluwasanmi, H. (2010). The Use of ICT in Nigerian Universities: A Case Study of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. StatCounter – Free Web Tracker and Counter [RSS] [Google] homepage
    According to the survey, e-mail was the most used Internet technology by both staff and students used in the survey while file transfer protocol was the list used. The respondents made use of search interfaces and discussion groups. The library/institution should therefore organize workshops for both staff and students so that they acquire knowledge to effectively use the Internet resources that are less used. When this is achieved, it will go a long way to improve the academic achievements of both the staff and students.The results of the survey also show that both the staff and students used search interfaces to look for information while they use the resources of the library involved in research. The few staff and students who made use of discussion groups did so mainly to be updated on research issues as well as for social reasons.

    The use of information and communication technologies no doubt is gaining momentum in Nigerian universities. The Internet is used by faculty, staff and students in sourcing information. Information and communication technologies assist libraries in providing efficient and current information services. Once the staff and students are able to use these technologies effectively, the teaching, learning and research activities in the university will be made easier for the university community. ICT usage will facilitate development since there will be free flow of information.

    2) Nwana, S. (2012). Challenges in the Application of E-learning by Secondary School Teachers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Home about login register search current archives announcements, Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2012) >Nwana
    This is an empirical research study which investigated the challenges in the application of e-learning in secondary schools in Onitsha North LGA, Anambra State, Nigeria. Two hundred and twenty-five (225) teachers in public secondary schools were used as the sample for the study. A self-developed instrument (TIUELM) on the availability and use of e-learning materials was used for data collection. The instrument contained 25 items. The reliability co-efficient of the instrument stood at 0.88. The data collected were analyzed using frequency distribution and mean. The findings revealed: acute shortage of e-learning materials such as on-line/internet-connected computers, e-mail facilities, multimedia television, multimedia computer and digital library. It was also revealed that the few available ones such as off-line/ordinary computers, scanner, printer and ready-made courseware are not utilized because the teachers lack the knowledge and skills of computer application. The only material identified as available and in use is the telephone. It was recommended among other things that, the government should embark on a massive computer training program for teachers. Teachers should be trained and retrained through in–service training, seminars, workshops and conferences for acquisition of the knowledge and skills needed for e-learning application in secondary schools in Nigeria.

    3) Hamilton-Ekeke J.T and Mbachu, C. E. (2014). The Place of Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) in Teaching and Learning in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. American Journal of Educational Research , 2015 3 (3), pp 340-347. DOI: 10.12691/education-3-3-13
    ICT is an accepted acronym of the word Information and Communication Technology. It include diverse set of technology and technological tools used to communicate, disseminates, store and manage information. The use of ICT in schools by staff and students have become a necessity as it can be used to improve the quality of teaching and learning in any tertiary institution. ICT is also a key tool that is having a revolutionary impact on educational methodology globally; however, this revolution is not adopted and widespread in Nigerian universities, it needs to be strengthening to reach the large percentage of universities in the country as only a few universities can boast of ICT and internet connectivity on campus. This study investigated the availability of ICT facilities as well as its usage in one of the newest government owned universities in the oil rich Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The research design was a survey research with a sample size of 843 undergraduate students from three faculties out of the six faculties in the Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection were employed in this study. The quantitative method of data collection involved questionnaire while the qualitative method of data collection involved interview schedule. These two methods of research were adopted in this study in order to triangulate the findings from both instruments. The face and content validity of the instrument was validated by two experts in measurement and evaluation while a reliability index of 0.86 was obtained using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient after the instrument has been administered twice to the same respondents not involved in the study (test re-test method of determining reliability). The research questions posited for this study were analysed using percentages while the hypotheses were tested using chi-square. The study revealed that basic ICT facilities like computers are unavailable, students are unable to afford personal laptop, this has grossly affected e-learning and e-communication channels like email, e-board, internet and organized networking system between staff and students. It is therefore recommended that there should be provision of student workstation and the inculcation of ICT in the curriculum to enable students to be computer literates so they can accept and use ICT in their everyday studies. It is interesting to note that, even in today’s globalizing world, traditional education still continues to exist in the form of socialization, cultural instruction and vocational training. Be it as it may, globalization has come to stay as it reflects the idea that life is a process and that human or a nation’s existence is a process that unfolds with time.

    4) Nwangwu, E.C., Obi, C.A. AND Ogwu, E. (2014) Integration of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in the Curriculum of Federal Unity Schools (FUS) in Nigeria: Implications for Learning. Greener Journal of Educational Research ISSN: 2276-7789 ICV (2012) 6.05

    The study examined the extent to which Information Communication Technology (ICT) is integrated into various school subjects in the curriculum as well as students’ utilization of and access to ICT, in order to establish a fact on its implications to e-learning. Data were collected from 105 Form 2 Junior Secondary School students from four Federal Unity Schools (FUS) in South Eastern Nigeria. Questionnaire was used for data collection that were analysed descriptively and quantitatively using frequency, percentages, charts, and cross tabulation chi-square to test the null hypotheses. Findings indicate that except for computer studies, ICT was not integrated into other school subjects in the curriculum. Although ICT is seldom used, the level of ICT integration into the curriculum χ2 (8, n=105) =7.704 p> .05 has no significant influence on the level of ICT utilization. Alternatively, students’ access to ICT package, χ2 (12, n=105) =22.207 p< .05 has a significant influence on ICT utilization; majority (66%) never had access to ICT usage. Recommendations were directed towards government assistance in equipping FUS with adequate facilities, teacher preparation towards ICT usage as well as monitoring and assessment of ICT utilization.

    5) Adeyemo, S.A. (2010).The Impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) On Teaching and Learning of Physics. IJERT Vol 1 [2] December 2010 48
    This study investigated the impact of information and communication technology on teaching and learning of physics. The respondents used for the study were one hundred and fifty-seven (157) physics students and two (2) physics teachers drawn randomly from two senior secondary schools from each of the five educational districts out of the six educational districts available in Lagos State. Three null hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of significant.
    The instruments used for the study were information and communication technology impact on teaching and learning questionnaire (ICTIT LQ). The data collected were analyzed using simple percentage and chi-square. The research findings indicated that ICT have great impact on teaching and learning of physics. Also the introduction of ICT makes learning of physics so interesting for the students. Based on the findings suggestions and recommendations were made.

    6) Matthew, D. Joro, I.D. and Manasseh, H. (2015). The Role of Information Communication Technology in Nigeria Educational System. International Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Studies Volume 2, Issue 2, February 2015
    The study investigates the role of ICT in educational system in Nigeria. ICT in Education is an instrument par excellence that a nation can rely upon to bring about self-reliance. The study observed that Nigeria still experience a lag in its implementation, and this continue to widen the digital and knowledge divides and the access to ICT facilities is a major challenge facing most African countries. The study concludes that despite the roles ICT can play in education, schools in Nigeria have yet to extensively adopt them for teaching and learning. Efforts geared towards integration of ICT into the school system have not had much impact. Problems such as poor policy, project implementation strategies and poor information infrastructure militate against these efforts. The study recommends that efforts should be made by government to post and provide teachers skilled in ICT to each school to impart ICT skills to the student and also should stabilize electricity supply in Nigeria.

    7) Ogunsola, L.A. and Aboyade, W.A. (2005). Information and Communication Technology in Nigeria: Revolution or Evolution. © Kamla-Raj 2005 J. Soc. Sci., 11(1): 7-14 (2005)
    This paper presents an historical development of telecommunications starting from Lanlate I Satellite Earth Station which was Nigeria’s first international satellite telecommunications gateway to the outside world. An overview of the general level of development of information technology in Nigeria is also highlighted and it also examines the extent to which it is being used in support of information delivery and communication in science and technology. The importance of information technology devices to the general development of national economy
    and educational advancement is also discussed. The paper emphasizes that for the survival and relevance of higher education institutions in Nigeria, ICT should be declared an institutional priority with adequate funding and support. It is finally concluded that the tremendous advancement in computer technology, software engineering and telecommunications as well as the resultant radical changes and advances in the techniques of data and information processing, storage, retrieval and dissemination in Nigeria within a decade is, no doubt, a revolution.

    8) Abubakar, A.M. (2016). An Assessment of the Use of ICT in Teaching and Learning in Public Secondary Schools in Northeastern Nigeria. Institute of Graduate Studies and Research Information and Communication Technologies in Education Eastern Mediterranean University February, 2016 Gazimagusa, North Cyprus
    The application of information and communications technology in Nigeria and in African countries generally is increasing and dramatically growing. Over the past few years, ICT has turned out to be a step by step more imperative to schools at all levels and to the entire education system at large. There exist an extensive variety of researches focused on the investigation of the utilization of ICT in the process of teaching and learning in Nigerian secondary schools. This study aimed to assess how ICT is used in teaching and learning in Nigerian public secondary schools particularly those from the Northeastern States from the viewpoint of students, instructors and administrators. Built on the three central research questions, the objective of this study is to assess the degree of usage of the ICT facilities in teaching and learning practices.
    In this study, a mixed-methods approach for data gathering was applied by using questionnaires and interviews to collect data from students, instructors and administrators in the studied states. The responses were then analyzed based on the research questions outlined in chapter one. The result shows that the use of ICT facilities are very low and this is attributed to the poor policy implementation, lack of basic social amenities and insecurity.

    9) Ajayi, I. A. and Ekundayo, H. T. (2009). The application of information and communication technology in Nigerian secondary schools. International NGO Journal Vol. 4 (5), pp. 281-286, May, 2009
    This study examined the application of information and communication technology (ICT) in Nigerian secondary schools. The study investigated the level of availability of ICT facilities in schools, the capacity for using ICT facilities for teaching learning, the perceived benefits of using ICT and the problems facing the use of ICT in secondary schools. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population consisted of all the teachers and principals of the secondary schools in Ondo and Ekiti States. The sample consists of 320 teachers and 40 principals randomly selected from the secondary schools in Ondo and Ekiti States. A self designed questionnaire tagged “ICT” and secondary schools (ICTSS)” was used to collect the data for the study. Data collected for the study were analysed using frequency counts and percentage scores. The study revealed that ICT facilities were lacking in schools and teachers and students were to a little extent exposed to the use of ICT. Moreover, the study revealed the perceived benefits of using ICT in schools which include making teaching-learning interesting;
    helping the distance learning programme; helping teachers to be up-to-date; enhancing quality of work by both the teachers and the students. However, despite these perceived benefits, the study also revealed some of the challenges facing ICT in secondary schools as: irregular power supply:
    inadequate computer literate teachers; high cost of purchasing computers in schools; inadequate
    facilities to support full application of the ICT and lack of fund. It was therefore recommended that government should increase the funding of the education sector. There should also be periodic training for teachers on computer and ICT skills acquisition.

    10) Adesote, S.A. and Fatoki, O.R. (2013). The role of ICT in the teaching and learning of history in the 21st century. Educational Research and Reviews Vol. 8(21), pp. 2155-2159, 10 November, 2013 DOI: 10.5897/ERR2013.1617
    This paper examines the role of Information and Communication Technology in the Teaching and Learning of History in the Senior Secondary School in the 21st century. The new Information and communication technologies of internet and multimedia which have led to positive impact in the field of education in most developed countries are still at infancy or not used at all in the classroom instruction in the developing countries. ICTs are potential powerful enabling tools for effective teaching and learning. The paper argues that the central role of ICT is to provide additional strategies that can be used to address major educational challenges being faced by teachers and students of History in the 21st century. The paper therefore concludes that the appropriate use of ICT can influence and change traditional methods of teaching and learning of History thereby ensuring quality education.

    1. Good work. There are some not tied to your topic but the effort is commendable. I counted 51 bibliographies, one above the mark.
      You actually repeated number 11 in one of the submissions.
      “11) Olumuyiwa Viatonu, Elusakin Titus Kayode (2013).Improving the Teaching and Learning of English Language Through the……
      11) Akinbode, J. O. (2014). The impacts of information communication technology (ICT) on the Teaching and Learning of….”
      But they are two different works.
      Well done.

  20. Replacement
    Katsina, A. S. (2016). Peoples Democratic Party in the Fourth Republic of Nigeria: Nature, Structure, and Ideology. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2158244016651910
    The author Aliyu Mukhtar Katsina, who holds a PhD in political science, and specializes in party politics and democratic governance in Nigeria works with Umaru Musa Yar’adua University (UMYU), Nigeria submitted that People’s Democratic Party, PDP was essentially built on patronage. Thus, for it to continue to survive and succeed, it needed to find outlets through which generous patrons and their acolytes could be rewarded. The challenge for the party, therefore, is to look beyond this source of patronage and consider re-establishing relationship with the grass-roots if it desires to remain relevant in Nigeria’s electoral politics. He tried to show that there are lessons for parties and their leaders. Electoral success and continued political relevance should not be taken for granted by parties. Rather, party leaders need to continue to work for these through respecting principles of rule of law, internal democracy, and adoption of coherent policy blueprints for the development of their societies.

    1. Honestly I still do not see anything related to your topic in this bibliography. But don’t bother to replace this. I think you have done well so far. SO just about four of you have completed this task. I am still wondering why the rest decided to ignore the deadline.


    11. Olise, Festus Prosper and Tebekaemi, Perekene, (2015). Social media and journalism practice in Nigeria. Journal of social and management sciences. Vol 10 N02, Pp41-48. The researchers anchored on the tenets of public sphere and technology acceptance theories, qualitatively evaluates social media and journalism practice in Nigeria.
    The method of study employed by the researchers was analytical review of literatures on social media applications for journalism practice, implications of social media for journalism practice. From which deductions were made. The researchers deduced that the utilization of social media for journalism practice plays both functional, that is (promoting interactivity in journalism practice) and dysfunctional (which involves weaken specialization on journalism practice) roles in journalism practice:
    They included that social media have revolutionized the practice of journalism globally. The researchers concluded by recommending among other things that the new age journalists in Nigeria should be encouraged to positively embrace and utilize social media for journalism practice.
    12. Ekeli, Emmanuel Ossai and Enobakhare, Josephine Osatohanmwen, (2013). Social media and the changing nature of journalism practice in Nigeria Vol; 11. No. 1. The writers examined how social media have affected the face of mainstream journalism in Nigeria. To achieve this, they used the survey method of scientific inquiry by itemizing 16 questions that were distributed to 50 respondents, comprising of news reporters, feature writers and producers in radio, television stations and a newspaper organization using the systematic sampling technique. It was revealed that social media have changed the ways news is being produced and disseminated on mainstream journalism.
    It was also discovered that twitter was the most used site among other social networks in accessing information by journalist. The researchers recommended that mainstream media should adopt the virtue of social media and adapt them to journalistic practices. Also journalists should create new ways of packaging and disseminating news to the public.
    13. Ukonu, Michael, Ani, Moses and Ndubisi, chinyere, (2013). The influence of online newspaper readership on print newspaper purchases. A study of Nigerian universities in the south-east. Vol.i11, No 1. The study examines the influence of on-line newspaper readership on print newspaper purchases with a focus on the staff and students of Nigerian universities in the South–East.
    The researcher adopted the survey research design and responses were elicited from three randomly selected universities in the South–East. This study is anchored on the uses and gratification theory.
    And it was revealed that even though on line newspapers have significant benefit over print newspapers, this does not in any way have direct impact on print newspaper purchase. The researchers also argued that social media use has influenced the level of print newspaper readership among youths in Nigeria. Hence, they recommend that newspaper proprietors should ensure that information contained in print media does not becomes stale at the time of publication to compete favorably with the social media as well as boost print newspaper purchase
    14. Olise, Festus prosper, (2014). Social media emergence: implications for journalist practice on Nigeria. Mass media review: An international journal of mass communication. Vol 1, No 4. This papers looks at the emergence of social media and their implications in journalism practice in Nigeria. It anchored its study on public spheres and technology acceptance theories which advocates, the positive uses of new technologies (social media) to enhance collaboration, interaction and sharing through public participation.
    The researchers highlighted the different types of social networking (facebook) web publishing/web blogging (twitter) and file sharing/storage media (Youtube) which portray social media as either social problems or social solutions depending on the intent of usage in journalism practice. The researcher concludes that social media with its social problems remain social solutions as they enhance collaboration, interaction and sharing among others in journalism practice.

    15. Harper Ruth . A , (2010). The social media revolution: Exploring the impact on journalism and News Media Organization. Inquiries journal, social sciences arts and humanities. Vol. 2 No. 03. Inquiries journal.com.
    The researcher, main purpose was to learn how the social media revolution has changed and will continue to change journalism and news organizations. And to understand this, information’s were read and gathered which was broken into subtopics like a summary of the current state of traditional media, definitions and background information on what social media and social journalism are; social media tools professionals use and why; current event case studies in which social media played a role in reporting the news; ethical issues surrounding the social media shift; and how the future of the news media might look as a result of social media.
    The researcher while focusing on what has already occurred, she also look to the future and consider if public opinions of the mainstream media have helped spawn and accelerate the birth of the social media revolution. The researcher tried to answer a complex question: What impact has social media had on news organizations? Combining information from articles and secondary surveys gave the researcher quantitative and qualitative data that was used to identify how social media has impacted journalism and news organization.
    The researcher after examining data and results concluded that social media certainly has affected journalism and will continue to affect it in the future. Besides that, it was discovered by the researcher that social media has brought to light three fundamental areas within journalism: The public’s trust of the media; the importance of local new organizations and their likelihood to remain in print and the manner in which news is and will be covered using social media.
    16. Ahmed, Muhammed Auwai, (2015). The complexities of new media: can the “Web Media” completely erase traditional media from the communication industry? New media and mass communication Vol.40 ISSN 2224 – 3267 (Paper) ISSN 2224 –3275 (Online) http://www.iiste.org. The researcher looked at whether the “web media” will completely erase overshadow the conventional media and other issues surrounding the convergence of new and mainstream media as according to him, the advent of new media technologies poses great challenges to the survival of traditional media especially newspapers and magazines.
    This piece tried to found out how the new media affect the operations and survival of the print media industry in terms of newsgathering and processing, including production and management of newspapers and magazines. The researcher while trying to clarify key terms such as traditional media and new media, he looked at sub-topics like mass media: The traditional (Conventional) category the newer social media, distinction between the traditional (Conventional) and the new or social media, new media and the survival of traditional media with focus on newspapers and magazine new media technologies improve (facilitate) newsgathering and dissemination processes, new media technologies affect the patronage, readership and circulation of newspapers and magazines, reduction in the revenue generated from advertising, improvement on quality and reduction in the cost of newspapers and magazines production and new media influence the management process of newspaper and magazine in conclusion, the researcher stated that it was evident that the advent of new media technologies posed great challenges to the survival of traditional media, especially the print media industry.
    These challenges are both positive and negative as new technologies compliment and complicate the reportorial role of journalism and the media in the contemporary society.
    17.Ezugwu, N.M, (2008). The impact of information communication technologies (I.C.T.S) on journalism practice in Nigeria. A study of the nation, sun and champion newspaper department of Mass Communication, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The study looks at the impact of information technologies in newspaper production in contemporary Nigeria and a study of nation, sun and champion newspapers staff was undertaken.
    The researcher used the survey research method to ascertain the impact of ICTS in newspaper production, to verify how effective the application of ICTS have being in news paper production in Nigeria and to the extent to which ICTS have affected manual production as well as how newspaper organizations have harnessed the potential of ICTS in enhancing newspaper development in Nigeria.
    This study was anchored on the social development theory by Garry Jacobs and Harlen Cleveand 1999, it was discovered that newspaper industry in Nigeria makes use of ICTS in their production process
    18.Chukwu, Christiana, Ogeni, (2014). Online journalism and the changing nature of traditional media in Nigeria. International journal of African Society culture and traditions, Vol .2, No. 3, PP1-9 This paper takes a look at the changes that online journalism has brought on the Nigeria media landscapes its presence mostly felt by the traditional media.
    The researcher stated that newspapers have for the past decade decried that decline in circulation as web visits continue to increase, making the future of newspaper journalism an uncertainty. Thus, this paper adopted technological determinant theory and the media morphosis theory. During the course of discussion the researcher looked at the following; online journalism, on line journalism impact on readers, traditional media (mainstream media), The present media landscape in Nigeria news value, ubiquities nature of online journalism.
    In conclusion, the researcher noted that the internet is not only or even mainly concerned with production and distribution of messages. It is at least equally concerned with processing exchange and storage of information, that the internet is as much as institution of private as well as of public communication and the operation is not typically professional of bureaucratically organized in the same degree as mass media.
    The study then recommends that media houses yet to train their staff should do so as soon as possible and media houses having online sites should try as much as possible to sustain it.

    19. Abdulhameed, Kayode Agboola, (2014). The influence of new media on conventional media in Nigeria. Academic Research International. Vol 5, No.4.
    According to the researcher, the advent of new media has posed several challenges to conventional media, stating that, the effect of new media on newspaper in Nigeria was still manageable as they still attracts advertising dollars even with the presence of online newspapers. The study argues, that the presence of the internet will not replace newspapers, just as radio did not replace newspaper and television has complemented the radio.
    This piece also looked at the presence situation of conventional media especially print newspaper vis-à-vis the new media in Nigeria. The paper argues that the drop in circulation as experienced by the print media is as a result of the younger generation’s preference for the new media as they are more interested in interactive compared to the online version of mainstream media. In achieving this the paper looked at: the interest as a global new media, use of internet in politics, use of internet for social and political mobilization, new media use for voting, the challenges facing conventional media, the Nigerian newspaper industry Vis-à-vis the new media, the way forward for newspapers.
    The paper therefore concludes that in Nigeria, the new media and conventional media will continue to co-exist and reinforce each other presumably beyond the envisaged year 2020.
    20. Nwanne, Ben.U, (2016). Journalism and new media in Nigeria: issues, challenges and prospects. International Journal Academic Research and Reflection.Vol.4,No.3. This study addresses journalism and new media in Nigeria: Issues challenges and prospects. The researcher builds its postulations on the technological determinism theory which says that the communication technology prevalent in any age has a profound effect on the way the people think and believe.
    The researcher highlights some of the issues and challenges of Nigerian journalists in using the new media to include poor finance, inadequate power supply among others the researcher, concluded that despite the challenges, the media people have coped well, leading to what has been described as media convergence; And it recommends that government should urgently and effectively address the power situation in the country, provide a knowledge economy while employers and employee should engage in training and retraining.
    21. Sanusi, B.O., Adelabu, O. and Esin; M., (2015). Changing roles in the Nigerian media industry: A study of multimedia journalism Kuwait chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review. Vol.4,No.12.
    The researcher stated that the study of journalism has always been at the cutting edge of technology, as every changes in technology has always impact journalism. According to the researcher, there is no technology that has radically alter the practice of journalism like multimedia technology on the practice of journalism. This was done by looking at the role of the media in society as expanding the horizon of thoughts, focusing attention and raising aspirations; understanding the concept of media convergence; Role of the Nigerian Journalist in the age of media convergence.
    The researcher concluded that multimedia technology has redefined the traditional role of journalist, the practice of journalism and the dichotomy between print and electronic media.
    22. Oyokunyi, J.I. Ekeanyanwu, N.T. and Aniebo, .S., (2017). Economics of decline and survival strategies of Nigerian print media industry: A study of the Guardian, The Sun, and Leadership Newspapers. UNIUYO Journal of Humanities (UUJH) Vol.2,No.2.
    The researcher explores the impact of the global economics recession in national newspapers based in Lagos, the hub of the newspaper industry in Nigeria. The study carried out an in-depth interview with senior editors of the newspaper to explain the economies of decline as well as investigate the survival strategies adopted by them. The researcher also evaluated the future of the newspaper industry in Nigeria beyond 2030 and identify the alternative newsgathering and dissemination models adopted by Nigerian newspapers to decline.
    This paper was anchored on the creative destruction and disruptive innovation theories. This study adopts qualitative in-depth interview and on site operations observations of the newspaper studied, for its data collection and it was revealed that these newspapers are really facing a bigger threat of extinction and that survival strategies adopted by them to stay afloat especially in this era of social media are inadequate.
    23. Oberiri, Destiny Apuke, (2016). The impact of social media on conventional journalism practice in Nigeria: A study of journalists in Jalingo Metropolic. Canadian Social Science.Vol.12,No.12, PP59-65.
    This study examines the impact of social media on journalism practice in Nigeria. It explores the extent to which social media has changed journalism practice in Nigeria particularly journalist in Jalingo Metropolis.
    This study was based on diffusion of innovations theory of communications by Rogers (1995). The researcher used the survey method to collect data. It was revealed that a considerable number of journalists in Jalingo Metropolis were computer literates and they access the internet at various level. It was also discovered that they go online very often and they prefer facebook to any other social network because it assist them to gather and disseminate news fast.
    24. Alejandro, Jenifer, (2010). Journalism in the age of social media. Reuters Institute for the study of journalism. Reuters Institute Fellowship Papers, University of Oxford.
    This paper attempted to answer the questions; How do social media impact the news? Is twitter the news media outlet of the future? What is the twitter effect? What is twitter journalism? How do social media and other web 2.0 technologies such as blogs affect newsroom operations in reporting a news event, how social media affect the way journalists receive, gather and distribute news? And what does it mean for the future of news.
    The researcher used survey method, the survey about the usage of social media was conducted among selected chief editors from different part of the world; The former future media chief of UK’s biggest news organization, the North American Bureau chief of a wire agency, the Singapore Bureau of news agency, a Malaysian wire and radio news organization, an Indonesian news agency and one of the biggest digital online groups in India.
    The study concludes that it is inevitable that social media will change things maybe for better or for worse. But they will surely bring about transparency, accountability and a broader range of voices and viewpoints. Although for journalist the tides of change will also bring about pressures on the need for multi-skilling, ability to produce rapidly, having less capacity to reflect, having less time to write beautifully and possibly a shorter period to verify facts.

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