Technological Advances In Communication! Ph.D

Recall that in our last class we dwelt extensively on how technology has influenced various facets of the society. We had intelligent presentations from various students on technology and religion, entertainment, the economy, and culture. We saw that the influence of information technology on various facets of life has mainly been to the effect of making information about them more accessible.

You were then told to provide a scholarly article with relevant references on how technology has influenced tradition in Africa. The most relevant focus here is on how the developments in information technologies have influenced the continuity of social attitudes, customs or institutions.

You are to write an article of not less than 800 words on this topic. Send your answer as a response to this post.

Deadline for submission is 9pm on Tuesday, May 14.

The Author

Chinenye Nwabueze

Nwabueze is a communication researcher with several years of lecturing experience in Nigerian universities.

7 Comments

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  1. Temofeh Catherine lsioma

    CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF TECHNOLOGY AND TRADITION
    Technology according to Nolan and Lenski (2006), is a cultural information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires. This information has to be channelled properly to get the desired nature of satisfaction that the manufacturer and by extension the user of the specific kind of technology requires at one point or the other. Technology is also defined by Encyclopedia Britannica as the practical application of science to commerce for the satisfaction of humanity.
    Tradition on the other hand, is an inherited pattern of thought and action. It is more or less like saying the custom of a particular people. For a people to be referred to as a people with tradition, it then means that, such a community or clan or community or continent like Africa, are a people with a usual and acceptable pattern of living (Oloidi, 2014).
    The coming of technology came with its blessings and curses. Some of the ‘blessings ‘ are( as the African continent is largely dependent on foreign technologies instead of producing their own) not limited to; how it makes life easier by enhancing comfortable living and propelling success in the workforce, education, security and business sectors. But there is a cost for this high dependency on western technologies. The reality of things is that, African tradition is almost going extinct because of high foreign influence through technology that has been aided through the following factors like: mass media, books, cinema, films, fashion and education. Although the influence of technology on the lives of Africans are subtle, they leave a large indelible mark.
    In addition to the above factors, the people of Africa lags behind in the world of science and technology which they ordinarily would have synchronised together with indigenous tradition to better their lots (Oloidi 2014). But due to greed and corruption on the part of government officials and the discouraging nature of ministries to support or empower local manufacturers of gadgets in the tech world, the over reliance of these set of technologies from abroad continue to hold firm on the people.
    In the words of Abanyam (2013), due to this dependency formula that has been on in Africa for decades, traditional values and cultures of Africa are eroding away and replaced with traditions of foreign lands as it is exemplified in the following; in the traditional African society today, children are losing the ability to play properly as it were under the moonlight, because of the influx of western technological devices like video games.
    He wet on to state that, due to this high dependency of technological advancements from the western world, our dressing patterns that portrayed decency have become replaced with indecent clothes in our higher institutions of learning, with high rate of DRG abuse, high proliferation of guns and weapons of mass destruction, assault, rape, gangsters and cultists abound and more.
    THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON TRADITION IN AFRICA
    According to Adeyeye (1984 cited in Oloidi,2014), the technological development in Africa from the pre- historic to the pre- colonial period was undergoing systematic and natural process or growth when the Europeans abruptly disrupted this process. This disruption began in the 5th century, first with the Arabs and later with Atlantic slave trade.
    Adeyeye (1984) added that, with colonization came total disorganization and exploitation of Africa and its rich cultural heritage and tradition. The Europeans thus imposed their technological culture like the importation of fabrics and plastics and so on thereby killing the African industrial initiatives like the making of farm implements that would have long advanced beyond what is is today, if African market were free from too much pressure and competition from hi- tech economies (Oloidi, 2014).
    Because of these negative trends, a comparative analysis have been done by historians and sociologists proving that, the high dependency and its influence of imported technology have led to ‘breeding laziness’ in the people of Africa and by extension taking away their traditional roots.
    To mention but a few examples on the areas of negative influence on African tradition can be in areas of many electronic games, movies, bad models etc promote immorality, profanity and violence (Abanyam, 2013). This has also helped in shaping the attitudes of children to be out of context in the scheme of things in Africa. Also, in the area of agriculture, the importation of chemicals such as pesticides for poisoning bees and fishes instead of applying local healthier ways to doing such, have serious health hazards on Africans.
    CONCLUSION
    In conclusion, it is obvious that some of these western technologies are having disastrous and negative effects in the tradition of Africa and its people. In addition, these technologies have not only damaged the tradition in Africa, but have also created room for the people to become unable to advance their lot in the world of technology as they keep relying on the west. It is therefore important for Africans to help themselves by encouraging local and indigenous knowledge towards advancing in technology that will help sustain the African tradition.
    REFERENCES
    Abanyam, N. L (2013). The effects of western technology on African cultural values, IOSR journal if Humanities and Social science, vol. 8. Issue 4 (pg. 26- 28). Http//www.iosrjournals.org.
    Nolan, P. and Lenski, G. (2006). Human societies: An introduction to macro sociology. Boulder. Co. Paradigm.
    Oloidi, F.J Phd (2014). African traditional technology: Ekiti of Southwestern Nigeria experience, international journal of social science and Humanities research. Http//www.researchpublish.com
    Adeyeye, B. (1984). Ekiti in Yoruba civilization, an unpublished project, department of Public Administration, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

    1. Temofeh Catherine lsioma

      CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF TECHNOLOGY AND TRADITION
      Technology according to Nolan and Lenski (2006), is a cultural information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires. This information has to be channelled properly to get the desired nature of satisfaction that the manufacturer and by extension the user of the specific kind of technology requires at one point or the other. Technology is also defined by Encyclopedia Britannica as the practical application of science to commerce for the satisfaction of humanity.
      Tradition on the other hand, is an inherited pattern of thought and action. It is more or less like saying the custom of a particular people. For a people to be referred to as a people with tradition, it then means that, such a community or clan or community or continent like Africa, are a people with a usual and acceptable pattern of living (Oloidi, 2014).
      The coming of technology came with its blessings and curses. Some of the ‘blessings ‘ are( as the African continent is largely dependent on foreign technologies instead of producing their own) not limited to; how it makes life easier by enhancing comfortable living and propelling success in the workforce, education, security and business sectors. But there is a cost for this high dependency on western technologies. The reality of things is that, African tradition is almost going extinct because of high foreign influence through technology that has been aided through the following factors like: mass media, books, cinema, films, fashion and education. Although the influence of technology on the lives of Africans are subtle, they leave a large indelible mark.
      In addition to the above factors, the people of Africa lags behind in the world of science and technology which they ordinarily would have synchronised together with indigenous tradition to better their lots (Oloidi 2014). But due to greed and corruption on the part of government officials and the discouraging nature of ministries to support or empower local manufacturers of gadgets in the tech world, the over reliance of these set of technologies from abroad continue to hold firm on the people.
      In the words of Abanyam (2013), due to this dependency formula that has been on in Africa for decades, traditional values and cultures of Africa are eroding away and replaced with traditions of foreign lands as it is exemplified in the following; in the traditional African society today, children are losing the ability to play properly as it were under the moonlight, because of the influx of western technological devices like video games.
      He wet on to state that, due to this high dependency of technological advancements from the western world, our dressing patterns that portrayed decency have become replaced with indecent clothes in our higher institutions of learning, with high rate of DRG abuse, high proliferation of guns and weapons of mass destruction, assault, rape, gangsters and cultists abound and more.
      THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON TRADITION IN AFRICA
      According to Adeyeye (1984 cited in Oloidi,2014), the technological development in Africa from the pre- historic to the pre- colonial period was undergoing systematic and natural process or growth when the Europeans abruptly disrupted this process. This disruption began in the 5th century, first with the Arabs and later with Atlantic slave trade.
      Adeyeye (1984) added that, with colonization came total disorganization and exploitation of Africa and its rich cultural heritage and tradition. The Europeans thus imposed their technological culture like the importation of fabrics and plastics and so on thereby killing the African industrial initiatives like the making of farm implements that would have long advanced beyond what is is today, if African market were free from too much pressure and competition from hi- tech economies (Oloidi, 2014).
      Because of these negative trends, a comparative analysis have been done by historians and sociologists proving that, the high dependency and its influence of imported technology have led to ‘breeding laziness’ in the people of Africa and by extension taking away their traditional roots.
      To mention but a few examples on the areas of negative influence on African tradition can be in areas of many electronic games, movies, bad models etc promote immorality, profanity and violence (Abanyam, 2013). This has also helped in shaping the attitudes of children to be out of context in the scheme of things in Africa. Also, in the area of agriculture, the importation of chemicals such as pesticides for poisoning bees and fishes instead of applying local healthier ways to doing such, have serious health hazards on Africans.
      CONCLUSION
      In conclusion, it is obvious that some of these western technologies are having disastrous and negative effects in the tradition of Africa and its people. In addition, these technologies have not only damaged the tradition in Africa, but have also created room for the people to become unable to advance their lot in the world of technology as they keep relying on the west. It is therefore important for Africans to help themselves by encouraging local and indigenous knowledge towards advancing in technology that will help sustain the African tradition.
      REFERENCES
      Abanyam, N. L (2013). The effects of western technology on African cultural values, IOSR journal if Humanities and Social science, vol. 8. Issue 4 (pg. 26- 28). Http//www.iosrjournals.org.
      Nolan, P. and Lenski, G. (2006). Human societies: An introduction to macro sociology. Boulder. Co. Paradigm.
      Oloidi, F.J Phd (2014). African traditional technology: Ekiti of Southwestern Nigeria experience, international journal of social science and Humanities research. Http//www.researchpublish.com
      Adeyeye, B. (1984). Ekiti in Yoruba civilization, an unpublished project, department of Public Administration, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

  2. Chukwuebuka Chukwuemeka

    THE INFLUENCE OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY ON TRADITIONS IN AFRICA
    BY CHUKWUEBUKA CHUKWUEMEKA

    Introduction:
    The basic thing to do in approaching this paper is to first establish a working understanding of the word tradition. This is one word that has been subjected to various interpretations by various scholars and in various fields of human life.
    In archaeology, the term tradition is a set of cultures or industries which appear to develop on from one another over a period of time – Handler and Innekin(1984).
    Tradition in Biology according to Fragaszy (2003), is defined as a behavioral practice that is relatively enduring (i.e. is performed repeatedly over a period of time), that is shared among two or more members of a group, that depends in parts on socially aided learning for its generation in new practitioners and has been called a precursor to culture in the anthropological sense.
    Sociology sees tradition as a social construct used to contrast past with the present as a form of rationality used to justify a certain course of action.
    According to Wikipedia .com, the word tradition itself derives from the latin “tradere” literally meaning to transmit, to hand over, to give for safe keeping. Giddens (2003), in his work titled Runaway World: how globalization is reshaping our lives traces the origin to the context of Roman Law, where it referred to the laws of inheritance. Property that passed from one generation to another was supposed to be given in trust-the inheritor had obligations to protect and nurture it.
    Tradition, in essence, is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or significant with origin in the past.
    The idea of tradition is that practices are passed down from ancient generations to contemporary times as a link between the past and the present.
    In his work Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Beliefs, Customs, Tales, Music and Arts, vol.1 (1997), Thomas Green views tradition as a set of cultural ideals regarded as a coherent unit in which past ideals influence the present patterns of behavior in the group. He says it is a recognized set of present practices with origins in the past or a set of practices created in the past that are purposefully maintained by the group in the present.
    Thomas Green further informs that tradition is something passed down from one generation to the next, generally by informal means, with little or no change in the transmission of that item or in the item that is transmitted.
    Africa no doubt is a land of traditions. The world’s second largest continent-spanning both the northern and southern hemisphere with 54 independent countries and over 3000 diverse tribes, Africa is surely a handful to study. Laboring from the colonization and consequent denigration over a period of 300 years, Africa still holds out to the rest of humanity a wide range of fascinating traditions that make it Africa that it is.
    From the colorful wedding ceremonies of the Ndebele people of South Africa to the spitting practice of the Maasai people of Kenya, the breathtaking healing dance of the san people of Botswana, Africa surely is a marvel to the world.
    Over the years technological advances have permeated all spheres of human existence altering and in some cases completely changing these practices. In some instances, technological advances have helped to push these traditional practices to the doorsteps of the rest of the world. This is the crux of the matter in this paper. How has technological advances altered, destroyed or enhanced as the case may be the traditions inherent in Africa?
    AHAJIOKU FESTIVAL: Africa is largely an agrarian society. The family in Africa has a lot of traditional practices attached to it. The “ahajioku” festival of the Igbo race in eastern Nigeria is a referral point. It is a celebration of the god responsible for yam production. Africa has seen subsistent family to commercial agricultural due to the impact of technology. She developed her own crude infrastructure for that purpose and today we have hi-tech equipments deployed to the production, processing and distribution of agricultural products. The “ahajioku “festival in itself is a global brand.

    Tourist, historians and filmmakers all around the world have taken more than a passing interest in the festival. In fact, “Ahajioku” festival has an annual lecture series attached to it. The coverage and documentation of the festival using technology has ensured that the tradition has survived down to the present generation.

    THE HEALING DANCE: The healing dances among the San people of South Africa, Namibia, Botswana and Angola is another attraction in Africa. The Vimbuza healing dance of the Tumbuka people in northern Malawi till this present time has remained a spectacle to the world.
    In 2008 the Vimbuza healing dance was inscribed on the representative list of the intangible cultural heritage of humanity which was originally proclaimed in 2005 by UNESCO see http://ichi.unesco.org /en/Rl/vimbuza-healing-dance-0058.

    In a documentary produced by Ton Van der lee for “Spirits of Africa” series in 2012, the San (Bushman) spiritual ceremony is described as a healing trance dance. The traditional healer dances for hours until he gets into a trance, leaves the body to connect to the spirit world. He is empowered and upon his return to the physical realm, he heals people around the fire with the power he has received .www.spiritsofafrica.com and http://www.tonvanderlee.nl. Digital technology has so certainly transformed traditions in Africa by making it accessible to the world.

    MAASAI TRADITIONS: The Maasai people of East Africa are known to be an enduring tradition. Their love for bright colours and extensive ornamentation mark them out among other tribes. They are known to be very brave warriors and nomads. Karen Blixen describes the Maasai people in these words “A Maasai warrior is a fine sight. Those young men have, to the utmost extent, that particular form of intelligence which we call chic; daring and wildly fantastical as they seem, they are still unswervingly true to their own nature, and to an immanent ideal. Their style is not an assumed manner, nor an imitation of a foreign perfection; it has grown from the inside, and is an expression of the race and its history, and their weapons and finery are as much a part of their being as are a stag’s antlers.” http://maasaiwilderness.org/maasai/

    Diane McCarthy (2013) writes “For centuries, the lush national parks of southern Kenya and northern Tanzania have been called home by the Maasai, one of Africa’s most culturally distinct tribes. Being traditional pastoralists with a nomadic bent, the Maasai have used the sprawling grasslands and forested slopes of the Serengeti National Park, Tsavo National Park and Mkomazi Game Reserve as a grazing ground for their cattle, which provide them with the milk, meat and blood they need to survive.”
    In recent times however, the natural endowments of the Maasai people, their rich traditional heritage are being threatened. This is occasioned by the influx of foreigners and other business interests. To forestall the extinction of the rich Maasai traditions, a Maasai elder and activist, Martin Saning’o Kariongi started a campaign for his people to embrace technology and modernization.
    Kariongi began to think of ways to create opportunities for community economic empowerment around 2000 when he noticed that despite the whole struggle for land rights and human rights of the Maasai people, poverty is growing and so many young people were rushing into cities.
    Kariongi’s first idea for self-sustainability was to turn the resources available to the Maasai — their animals and abundant milk into an opportunity to create wealth for his people.
    Working in partnership with a Dutch NGO dedicated to promoting sustainable development in rural regions of the developing world, Kariongi launched a company and established five small milk processing units in five locations around the Maasai plains. From milking the herds to processing the milk and producing the dairy products, the business is run entirely by women. The units can process up to 2,000 liters a day, making cheese, yoghurt, butter and ghee-Daren (2013).
    Today, according to Kariongi in his interview with the CNN, the company has grown to include many arms, from an energy and water firm, to a media house producing broadcasts tailored for the Maasai, to a community ranch that helps improve access to quality breeds.

    “We have created facilities here — the radio station, the milk processing plant, the energy and water company, the internet, the library — all these facilities to bring modern life to people, so they don’t have to rush to towns,” says Kariongi. “When we lost our sons and daughters, rushed into towns, our women going to towns, then our lands will become empty and we might end up in an extinction.”
    He adds: “Culture is not static; culture is dynamic, it grows; it’s like a fire — In order for the fire to keep on burning and giving light and heat, somebody has to be putting new firewood. And the culture is like that — so generations come and go, and each generation puts its own firewood on the fire and the fire is the culture.” https://edition.cnn.com/2013/07/26/world/africa/tribal-elder-modernizing-the-maasai/index.html.

    FUNERAL RITES: Burial/funeral rite is one of the enduring ancient traditions in Africa. It is believed that a decent funeral rite grants the deceased a peaceful passage into the great beyond and entitles the deceased his rightful place among his ancestors. Different African societies have funeral traditions that are peculiar to them but the aim remains the same.
    In Egypt for instance bodies were mummified and kept. In the primitive era, mummification was carried out by putting bodies into pits in the desert to dehydrate them and leave the bodies in their natural condition. The challenge of the era was that wild animals were eating up such bodies. The tradition was modified to the practice of using bandages instead of drying in the hot pits of the desert. http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/mummies/home.html. Today, Egyptian mummies have not just become subjects of study, it has spread across the world and modern technology has been brought into the process.
    In 2011, NBC News reported that Researchers have turned a former British taxi driver into an Egyptian-style mummy, with television cameras tracking every step in the process. The procedure was chronicled in a documentary titled “Mummifying Alan: Egypt’s Last Secret,” and shown on Britain’s Channel 4 television. The show’s producers chronicled the months-long procedure of preserving the body of Alan Billis, a 61-year-old retired taxi driver from Torquay in Devon, applying the techniques that the ancient Egyptians used on Tutankhamun. (Tutankhamun was and Egyptian Pharaoh who ruled for approximately 10 years from around 1336-1327 BCE. In November 1922, Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon discovered Tutankhamun’s near-intact tomb in the Valley of the Kings. The king’s mummified body was found surrounded by precious grave goods, in his golden coffin, after his burial chamber was officially opened on 17 February 1923 in the presence of Egyptologists and government officials) https://www.historyextra.com/period/ancient-egypt/8-things-you-probably-didnt-know-about-tutankhamun/. Billis, who earned the nickname “Tutan-Alan,” was terminally ill with cancer when he volunteered to undergo the procedure.

    Experts work on the mummified leg of former taxi driver Alan Billis.
    A TV documentary has chronicled the mummification procedure,
    which uses the recipe developed in Egypt during the time of the pharaohs.

    According to NBC news, the main scientist behind the experiment was Stephen Buckley, a chemist and research fellow at Britain’s York University. For years, Buckley has been studying the preservation techniques that the Egyptians used during the 18th Dynasty. Alongside archaeologist Jo Fletcher, Buckley analyzed tissue samples from mummified bodies and finally put his findings to the test on Billis’ body at Sheffield’s Medico-Legal Center.

    During his studies, Buckley used a gas chromatograph, mass spectrometer and other instruments to identify the materials that were used by the priests in Tutankhamun’s day, including beeswax, oils and resins. He went on to conduct a series of experiments using more than 200 pigs’ legs as a substitute for human flesh. Buckley even rigged up a research shed where he could re-create the desert conditions present in ancient Egypt.

    When Billis died, a medical team removed most of his organs — including his lungs and intestines — through a 4-inch incision on the left side of his body. The cavity was then sterilized and padded with linen. Buckley went against the traditional wisdom that the Egyptians removed the brain of the deceased through the nose. He acknowledged that the procedure was often used, but noted that around half of the 18th Dynasty royal mummies retained their brains. In some cases, the shrunken remnants of the brain can still be seen in skull X-rays.

    After the removal of the organs, the body’s moisture content was removed using a caustic salt from the region, called natron, which was described by Greek historian Herodotus in 450 B.C. — 800 years after the 18th Dynasty. The scientists immersed the corpse in a salt bath for more than a month to draw out the water. To protect the skin from the harsh salt, it was covered in a layer of oils.

    Alan Billis and his wife Jan sit at home in Torquay in 2010. Alan died of
    cancer since this picture was taken and was turned into an Egyptian-style
    mummy for a scientific experiment (and a TV documentary).
    The body was then wrapped in linen, protecting it from light and insects. After three months of drying, the process was judged to be complete. “The skin itself has this leathery appearance which indicates that he has become mummified all over,” said forensic pathologist Peter Vanezis, who was part of the team behind the experiment. “It makes me very confident that his tissues have been mummified correctly and in a very successful manner.” http://www.nbcnews.com/id/44945609/ns/technology_and_science-science/t/british-taxi-driver-mummified-egypts-pharaohs/#.XNnuh-VKjIV.
    This is the best of ancient practice reinvented with the best of modern technology.

    CONCLUSION:
    From the foregoing therefore, it is evidently clear that technological advances have exerted tremendous influence on the traditional practices of Africa. Much of such influence is positive. Modern technology has been used to document and preserve much of Africa’s rich traditional practices. The internet especially has guaranteed that people all over the world have access to the remotest and most primitive practices of the African continent. A lot of traditional festivals of the African people are streamed live on the internet on various platforms.

    Again, the finesse and format of the various contents delivered to people across the world. Advances in picture and video formats have greatly improved the quality of contents as packaged and distributed across the world. Technological advances have further refined some of the ancient practices of Africa. Like the mummification cited above, it is evident that the experiment carried out on Tutan-Alan has pushed the practice to a whole new level. After Allan, I can imagine that a good number of people across the globe may pick interest on this ancient practice of Africa. This is the finest of technological sciences bringing to live an ancient practice and raising it to a whole new level. Once again, the world has affirmed that Africa is truly the cradle of civilization.

    On the other hand however, one may fear that modern technology has demystified Africa’s hidden secrets. The ritualistic part behind most of Africa’s traditional practices may have been lost to modern technology. Everything in Africa is attributed to the gods but today, technology has given access to the behind the scene undercurrents even to non-initiates. As a result, some of those practices are losing the awe around them.

    References:
    Fragaszy, D. M. and Perry, S. (2003). Towards a biology of traditions. Cambridge University
    Press
    Giddens, A. (2003). Runaway world: how globalization is reshaping our lives. Taylor & Francis.
    NY, USA.

    Green, T (1997). Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Beliefs, customs, Tales, Music and Arts, vol.1.
    https://books.google.com.ng/books?id=S7Wfhws3dFAC&pg=PA800&rediresc=
    y#v=onepage&q&f=false Accessed on 13/05/19

    Handler, Richard; Jocelyn Innekin(1984). “Tradition, Genuine or spurious”. Journal of American
    foliclore.29. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tradition. Accessed on 13/05/19.

    Langlois, S. (2001). Traditions :social ,in : Neli J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes Editors –in –chief,
    International Encyclopedia of the social & Behavioural Sciences, Pergamon, Oxfard

    Marchant, L.(2018).7Amazing African Tribal Traditions.
    https://blog. rhinoafrica. com/2018/08/13/7 – amazing-african-tribal-traditions/

    McCarthy, D (2013). Tribal elder modernizing the Maasai to avoid extinction.
    https://edition.cnn.com/2013/07/26/world/africa/tribal-elder-modernizing-the-maasai/index.html. Accessed on 13/05/19

    Shils, E. (2006). Traditions. University of Chicago press
    Sterne, M.(2016). Step back in time with the Zu/’hoasi Bushmen of Botswana.
    https://blog.rhinoafrica.com/2016/11/17/time-bushmen-botswana/. Accessed on 12/05/19.

    Vimbuza healing dance. https://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/vimbuza-healing-dance-00158.
    Accessed on 12/05/19

    http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/mummies/home.html.
    British taxi driver mummifies like Egypt’s Pharoahs. Nbcnews.
    http://www.nbcnews.com/id/44945609/ns/technology_and_science-science/t/british-taxi-driver-mummified-egypts-pharaohs/#.XNnuh-VKjIV.
    http://www.spiritsofafrica.com
    http://www.tonvanderlee.nl.
    http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/tradition. Accessed on 12/05/19
    http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/tradition. Accessed on 12/05/19

  3. Ofodile Obiajulu Anthony

    The technologies that humans created throughout history had a variety of influencing factors. The surrounding environment and the availability of natural resources, the ambition and drive for economic growth and prosperity, and even chance and coincidence are just three of many reasons why humans create and innovate. Another component that has had an important effect on human technologies is religion. Religion has played a major role in influencing cultures and shaping social behaviors and governmental policies around the globe. Even though humans created religion, the broad range of beliefs and practices that religion encompasses allows religion to be characterized as almost a natural part of life. Religion has led societies to develop beliefs and ideas about the environment and sustainability, find new forms of communication, and create instruments and perceptions of violence and inter-human conflicts.
    There is no exact date to which the formation of religion can be traced to, but it is assumed that the first ideas about religion came to early humans shortly after the time when they developed brains large enough for abstract thought (Ehrlich). In his book, Human Natures: Genes Cultures and the Human Prospect, biologist Paul Ehrlich defines religion as “a set of ideas about supernatural entities, agencies, and possibilities”. Early societies used their own “set of ideas” to form interactions and philosophies about their surrounding environment. Islam, a religion most prominent in the Middle East and North Africa, has many positive views on the environment and the importance of human care for it. The prophet Mohammed believed rain and water had divine powers to resurrect the dead and cleanse the land (Whitbeck). On the other hand, Christianity, the world largest practiced religion, has more mixed outlooks. Branches and sects of Christianity, such as Utilitarian Earth View and No Stewardship, preach against environmental care, and encourage the dominance of man over the environment (DeWitt). The Bible even has passages and messages about the environment being at mans disposal. In the book of Genesis chapter 1 verse 26, it says “And let them have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the heavens and over the livestock and over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” Finally, there have been examples of societies abusing their environment to fulfill their religious practices. In the famous case of Easter Island, there are numerous theories and explanations stating that the environmental degradation of the island by the citizens of Easter Island was due to their religious beliefs about constructing massive stone faces, which needed large quantities of the islands’ limited resources to move and erect the statues (White Jr.). While sets of ideals and various forms of thinking are not normally considered forms of technologies, it is important to understand that technologies develop from thoughts, questions, and reason, therefore religious beliefs can influence societies to create, or not create, tangible technologies that benefit, or hinder, their surrounding environment.
    Another aspect of human technologies that religion has shaped is communication. Religion was a driving force for humans to find new means to disseminate information about multiple teachings and practices. In the thirteenth century, Johan Gutenberg invented the first printing press, because he wanted to find a new way to publish his now famous Gutenberg Bible, and produce as many copies as possible for the public. Gutenberg’s printing press was the first to introduce movable type and made printing much less expensive than before (Kroeker). Without religion, Gutenberg might have never had a reason or the ambition to invent the printing press, thereby indicating that religion was the foundation for mass media communications, something that has revolutionized the exchange of information and transformed society. Religion has also played a role in notable scientific discoveries, while at the same time impeding and censoring scientific research. The church, for his belief that the earth was not the center of the universe, persecuted and excommunicated Galileo Galilee. However, it is interesting to note that churches have been associated with academia, and the research and discoveries made by famous scientists such as Copernicus, Robert Boyle, Rene Descartes, and Isaac Newton were sponsored and funded by religious institutions (Uyehara). Although religion was not directly the cause of many scientific breakthroughs, religion indirectly guided technological advancement and a change in cultural thinking.
    Religions’ role in influencing technology also expands into the realm of warfare and human violence. While there are numerous modern examples of religion being a cause of wars and conflicts, such as the current struggle in the Middle East with the radical Islamic group ISIS, religion was a driving force for many technologies of war, as well as the development of ideas and attitudes throughout the Middle Ages. One of the most notable religious driven wars were the Crusades. The Crusades were battles in the eleventh and sixteenth centuries between followers of the Catholic Church and Islam: with the church aiming to capture Jerusalem back from Islamic rule (Wyeth). The Crusades featured new battle armor that was lighter and slimmer, as well as new style of helmets and shields. The Crusades also introduced the importance of castle fortifications, making the outer walls out of stone instead of wood (Wyeth). Around the same time that the crusades were being fought, Chinese alchemists were trying to find a potion for immortality, in order to live as gods, and ended up accidently creating gunpowder (Ross), irreversibly changing the face of warfare and the course of human history. Religion was a catalyst in changing how nations and groups of people responded violently, and affected the entire way that governments run and interacted with each other.
    The ties between religion and technology are countless and dynamic. While religion has been able to allow scientists and government leaders to create some of the worlds most helpful and beneficial technologies, it has also created lethal tools and ideas that showcase the worst in humanity. Disregarding the nature of the technology created, religion acts as a motivating factor within society, driving people to investigate and look for new questions and answers. It is imperative that the complex character of religion, and the importance of technological advancement, and their connection be understood, because as the importance of environmental sustainability becomes increasingly critical, we can use the history of the influence of religion on technology to guide ourselves in the coming years.

    07037219044

  4. Ekwunife Rosemary Obianuju

    Name: Ekwunife Rosemary Obianuju Reg.No: 2017051006 Course Title:Technological Advances in Communication. Course Code: Mac: 981. Date: 14/5/2019

    THE EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGY ON AFRICAN TRADITION VALUES:

    ABSTRACT:
    Africa depends on Western technology without developing their own indigenous knowledge. This dependency status has enormous challenges since some of western technologies are not congenial with African traditional values. The findings showed that western technology exposed young people to adult issues, hideous violence, indecent dressing, immortality and built negative attitude that are contrary to African traditional values. It is recommended that Government should regulates the influxes of western technology and promote the indigenous technology in order to protect African society from the adverse effects of the western technology.

    INTRODUCTION

    Technology is a “cultural information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires. African is witnessing the effects of western technology with it’s occupying blessing and curses. The reality is that Africa lags behind in accelerating appropriate indigenous scientific knowledge to solve their problems (needs). Therefore, they depends on western technology. These dependency syndromes have an enormous challenge on African traditional values. Some of these Western technologies are not congenial of African context and have rather helped to erode (reduce) African tradition to Zero mark.
    While (2010:6) captures this picture more vividly thus: Africa and indeed Nigerian value system have metamorphosed from it’s collective orientation to take on a Western form.

    EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGY ON AFRICAN TRADITIONAl VALUES

    Africa has a relatively rich body of indigenous knowledge and related technologies which has being for thousand years to solve their problem.
    Despite their contributions, such indigenous knowledge and technology are not used. Rather they rely on western technology to accelerate their development.
    Abanyam(2012:105) in Akpan explain that: Before the advent of modern science and its application technology, the African has known how to brew beer,distill local gin,preserve corpses, weaves clothes, make pots of different shapes, colours and sizes, build houses, make astronomical observation, heal diseases of different types through herbs and roots,rear cattle and do many other things. But what has happened to these indigenous sciences today? Some of them have lost because of the influence of western scientific paradigm.
    The major problem here is that not all Western technologies are congenial with African worldview. Some of these western technologies have rather helped to reduce African traditional values. The youth appeared to be most venerable group affected by influence of western technologies.
    Western culture transmitted through technological devices (phonographic moves or materials) “exposed young people to adult issues at impersonate age (Denga 1983). African societies are now facing many problems, among which is sex abuse. These seems to be having effects on African societies. In the traditional African context, girls avoided pre marital sexual experience for fear of social punishments usually meted out to girls who lost their virginity before marriage. Today’s situation shows a sharp contract to the African traditional values.

    Many Western electronic games, movies, literature and bad models promotes immorality, profanity and violence. Some of them (games) glorify occult practices and features gang war,drug use,explicit sexual content, foul language and intense violence.
    Studies repeatedly shows that watching violent entertainment increases aggression in those who view it.(Denga,1983, Nnahi 2003). Bad models propelled our youth in exhibiting and committing crime in the society. Aggression and violence are learned by watching foreign movies.
    Gangsterism and modern cultism in many higher institutions in Africa may be an extreme of foreign technology.
    Today,African youths smoke marijuana and other dangerous substances, they maimed, loot and hawk drugs. Exposure to such graphic sex and hideous violence can damage African traditional values.
    In African society, there were certain accepted standard of dress that we are considered appropriate and inappropriate but with influence of foreign movies (Western technology) indecent clothing like mini skirts and skinned tight clothes that exposes breast,chest, belly,upper arms, armpits and buttons are increasingly common among little ones in Africa and are seen as modern fashion. This is in contrary to African traditional values.

    Finally,technology has adverse health implications that are contrary to African traditional chemicals such as pesticides imported in to Africa are use in poisoning bees and fishes. This has serious effect on African health.

    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    It is obvious that western technologies are having disastrous effects on African traditional values. The inability of Africa to develop their indigenous scientific knowledge exposes them to many challenges. Exposure of young people to adult issues, sexual abuse, immorality and building of negative attitude among the youth that are not in line with African tradition.

    This work recommends that the Government should regulates the influxes of western technology (foreign movies, computer games, pornography etc) to protect African society from the adverse effects of technology.
    Government, curriculum designers and educationists should implement a comprehensive moral education curriculum in primary, secondary and tertiary institutions in Africa.
    African government should encourage the development of indigenous technology that is consistent with African tradition.

    REFERENCES

    Abanyam,N.L,(2012)”The Realistic of Technology Transfer in Africa and the challenges for Development “. Africa Journal of Economy and society, vol 11,No. 2.115-124.

    Ahule,B.G.(2012)” the crisis of moral values and the Dilemma of Development published in Benue Journal of sociology, vol.3.No.1 makurd:shelters Academic press.

    Denga,D.I(1983)”De-Juvenilizing secondary schools in Nigeria through Behavioral counseling Techniques, the counselor Journal of the counseling Association of Nigeria, 5(1)pp29.

    Etobe,I.E,(2002).Sociology of Health and Rehabilitation Calabar: Bays communication ltd.

    Nnachi,R.O.(2003).The Behavioural problems among Nigerian children. Awka:the Nigerian society for Educational psychologist (NISEP).

    Nwabueze,C.(2014). Introduction to Mass Communication: Media Ecology in the global village. Owerri: Top shelve.

    Nwammuo, A.N(2011).”Mass Media and propagation of foreign cultural implications to developing nations of Africa.

    Nwodu,L.C.(2007)”ICT, globalisation and domination of African cultural values. A development communication perspective.

    Nwodu, L.C. (2004)”Technological determinism and media practitioners and media Global information flow: Realities and options for Developing countries, Nigerian Journal of Research and production, vol.2, No 5.Pp 72-21.

  5. Ekwunife Rosemary Obianuju

    Name: Ekwunife Rosemary Obianuju Reg.No: 2017051006 Course Title:Technological Advances in Communication. Course Code: Mac: 981. Date: 14/5/2019

    THE EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGY ON AFRICAN TRADITION VALUES:

    ABSTRACT:
    Africa depends on Western technology without developing their own indigenous knowledge. This dependency status has enormous challenges since some of western technologies are not congenial with African traditional values. The findings showed that western technology exposed young people to adult issues, hideous violence, indecent dressing, immortality and built negative attitude that are contrary to African traditional values. It is recommended that Government should regulates the influxes of western technology and promote the indigenous technology in order to protect African society from the adverse effects of the western technology.

    INTRODUCTION

    Technology is a “cultural information about how to use the material resources of the environment to satisfy human needs and desires. African is witnessing the effects of western technology with it’s occupying blessing and curses. The reality is that Africa lags behind in accelerating appropriate indigenous scientific knowledge to solve their problems (needs). Therefore, they depends on western technology. These dependency syndromes have an enormous challenge on African traditional values. Some of these Western technologies are not congenial of African context and have rather helped to erode (reduce) African tradition to Zero mark.
    While (2010:6) captures this picture more vividly thus: Africa and indeed Nigerian value system have metamorphosed from it’s collective orientation to take on a Western form.

    EFFECT OF TECHNOLOGY ON AFRICAN TRADITIONAl VALUES

    Africa has a relatively rich body of indigenous knowledge and related technologies which has being for thousand years to solve their problem.
    Despite their contributions, such indigenous knowledge and technology are not used. Rather they rely on western technology to accelerate their development.
    Abanyam(2012:105) in Akpan explain that: Before the advent of modern science and its application technology, the African has known how to brew beer,distill local gin,preserve corpses, weaves clothes, make pots of different shapes, colours and sizes, build houses, make astronomical observation, heal diseases of different types through herbs and roots,rear cattle and do many other things. But what has happened to these indigenous sciences today? Some of them have lost because of the influence of western scientific paradigm.
    The major problem here is that not all Western technologies are congenial with African worldview. Some of these western technologies have rather helped to reduce African traditional values. The youth appeared to be most venerable group affected by influence of western technologies.
    Western culture transmitted through technological devices (phonographic moves or materials) “exposed young people to adult issues at impersonate age (Denga 1983). African societies are now facing many problems, among which is sex abuse. These seems to be having effects on African societies. In the traditional African context, girls avoided pre marital sexual experience for fear of social punishments usually meted out to girls who lost their virginity before marriage. Today’s situation shows a sharp contract to the African traditional values.

    Many Western electronic games, movies, literature and bad models promotes immorality, profanity and violence. Some of them (games) glorify occult practices and features gang war,drug use,explicit sexual content, foul language and intense violence.
    Studies repeatedly shows that watching violent entertainment increases aggression in those who view it.(Denga,1983, Nnahi 2003). Bad models propelled our youth in exhibiting and committing crime in the society. Aggression and violence are learned by watching foreign movies.
    Gangsterism and modern cultism in many higher institutions in Africa may be an extreme of foreign technology.
    Today,African youths smoke marijuana and other dangerous substances, they maimed, loot and hawk drugs. Exposure to such graphic sex and hideous violence can damage African traditional values.
    In African society, there were certain accepted standard of dress that we are considered appropriate and inappropriate but with influence of foreign movies (Western technology) indecent clothing like mini skirts and skinned tight clothes that exposes breast,chest, belly,upper arms, armpits and buttons are increasingly common among little ones in Africa and are seen as modern fashion. This is in contrary to African traditional values.

    Finally,technology has adverse health implications that are contrary to African traditional chemicals such as pesticides imported in to Africa are use in poisoning bees and fishes. This has serious effect on African health.

    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    It is obvious that western technologies are having disastrous effects on African traditional values. The inability of Africa to develop their indigenous scientific knowledge exposes them to many challenges. Exposure of young people to adult issues, sexual abuse, immorality and building of negative attitude among the youth that are not in line with African tradition.

    This work recommends that the Government should regulates the influxes of western technology (foreign movies, computer games, pornography etc) to protect African society from the adverse effects of technology.
    Government, curriculum designers and educationists should implement a comprehensive moral education curriculum in primary, secondary and tertiary institutions in Africa.
    African government should encourage the development of indigenous technology that is consistent with African tradition.

    REFERENCES

    Abanyam,N.L,(2012)”The Realistic of Technology Transfer in Africa and the challenges for Development “. Africa Journal of Economy and society, vol 11,No. 2.115-124.

    Ahule,B.G.(2012)” the crisis of moral values and the Dilemma of Development published in Benue Journal of sociology, vol.3.No.1 makurd:shelters Academic press.

    Denga,D.I(1983)”De-Juvenilizing secondary schools in Nigeria through Behavioral counseling Techniques, the counselor Journal of the counseling Association of Nigeria, 5(1)pp29.

    Etobe,I.E,(2002).Sociology of Health and Rehabilitation Calabar: Bays communication ltd.

    Nnachi,R.O.(2003).The Behavioural problems among Nigerian children. Awka:the Nigerian society for Educational psychologist (NISEP).

    Nwabueze,C.(2014). Introduction to Mass Communication: Media Ecology in the global village. Owerri: Top shelve.

    Nwammuo, A.N(2011).”Mass Media and propagation of foreign cultural implications to developing nations of Africa.

    Nwodu,L.C.(2007)”ICT, globalisation and domination of African cultural values. A development communication perspective.

    Nwodu, L.C. (2004)”Technological determinism and media practitioners and media Global information flow: Realities and options for Developing countries, Nigerian Journal of Research and production, vol.2, No 5.Pp 72-21.

  6. Malachy Chukwunonso Onyema

    The Nigerian Mass Media and impact of ICT: A Historical Overview

    Evolution of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has brought enormous innovations in all spheres of human endeavours. The media of mass communication – radio, television, newspapers, magazines, etc. The satellite technology is one of the elements that spurred this revolution.
    Maida (1996), cited in Idemili and Sambe (2007, p.181) states that:
    The invention of some electromagnetic technologies
    such as micro-circuiting, micro-graphics, holographic
    memory, micro-electronics, optic-fiber-satellites, video
    discs, telex, view data, digital broadcast systems,
    facsimiles, videophones, computers and micro processors,
    etc., has no doubt revolutionized information gathering,
    processing, storage, retrieval and transmission; making
    information available ever more widely, rapidly and
    less expensive.

    Today, the broadcast media has shown a tremendous usage of ICT which has improved programme production and presentations. Most of broadcast Programmes adopts non-linear editing techniques. Non linear editing technique is process of using digital mechanisms in electronic media production.
    The radio also benefits from the ICT innovations as sound definitions has been enhanced. According to Akpan (2009) in Nwafor (2010, p. 11) define High Definition radio as “a digital service that greatly improves signals/sound quality of terrestrial local stations. With HD radios, an FM station sounds as good as a compact disc without atmospheric interference”.
    The print media is not left out as it is greatly supported and facilitated by Information and communication technologies. Many newspapers and magazines today have websites or blogs to engage their audience.

    Conceptual Definition of ICT
    The concept of Information and Communication Technology is divided into theee:
    Information
    Communication
    Technologies
    Information are messages, ideas, text, words, feelings etc intended for a person or group through a medium in order to create an exchange.
    Secondly Communication are the process of transfer of information, messages to an individual, group or mass.
    While technology are those machineries that are built and programmed to carry these message and facilitate the Communication process.
    Information and communication technology involves tangible and intangible process, technique and machinery of producing, retrieving, storing and transmitting digital data for communication purposes.
    In the mainstream media, ICTs are seen as an ancillary and supportive mechanism in accelerating the transfer of information.
    Nigerian Media Transitions:
    The first type of media before the colonial era was the traditional media. In fact it was the media that was use to inform the locals on the arrival of the white men. The traditional media perform these generic functions of the mass media:
    Information Dissemination
    Education
    Entertainment
    Mobilization
    Community Relations
    The traditional media popularly known as the Oramedia ranges from idiophones, symbolography, aerophones and membranophones.
    The colonial rule introduced the wired radio service from British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The motive was borne out of the need for a cohesive political mobilization.
    Another aspect of the media that opened up was the print medium. With the Introduction of Iwe Irohin by Henry Townsend and West African Pilot by Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, print journalism kicked off on the spur of political agitation and the clarion call for independence.
    In 1959, television was introduced in the media sphere. At that time, television was and it is still a media of glamour. However, it became an extension for the politicians to engineer that electioneering campaigns.
    To analyse today Contemporary media complex in Nigeria one can testify that media operations and Structure has metamorphosed as a result of the dynamics and complex of the information and communication technologies.
    The emergence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) has brought a tremendous change in the media industry all over the world. The media in various countries especially in the Western World are seriously adopting and utilizing the numerous opportunities provided by the new ICTs for greater efficiency, better quality, faster production, and delivery of more reliable and cost effective service.
    According to Agba (2002:108), “one area where these technologies have made tremendous impact is in the area of communication, and mass communication in particular”. The mass media being a product of science and technology, are taking seriously the numerous opportunities afforded by the ICTs revolution for improved programme contents, greater speed, greater reach, clearer sound and vision, better quality output and better reception. The media of mass communication – radio, television, newspapers, etc, all over the world, have definitely not been speared from the great revolution. The industry in
    the last few years had begun to take and appreciate seriously, the economic and productive values of adopting and applying the new technologies in their operations.
    The Sun, Thisday, The Vanguard, The Guardian, The Daily Independent, The Newswatch and Tell magazines are all connected to the internet. They make available to subscribers summaries of full text versions of their contents. However, the absence of satellite technologies that enable simultaneous publication of newspapers in different cities still poses a great problem to newspaper distribution and circulation in the country.
    Before the ICTs revolution, media operation was very cumbersome, slow and expensive. However, ICTs have changed the situation positively in various aspects.
    Factors responsible for ICT Use in the Nigerian Media Industry
    It seems that most mainstream media are supported by online media. The online media consist of the social media, blogs and websites that present news for audience engagement. The following are the factors that impacted this media trend:
    High rate of Computer literacy
    Audience active engagement
    High level of utility of the internet by the audience
    Miniaturization of ICT devices
    Advert attraction and space
    Commercialization of Google Adsense
    Flexibility of online medium
    Importance of ICT in the Nigerian Media
    To feed and update the audience with information
    To augment the industrial media beyond its basic systems
    To create extension of media Platforms
    To enable instant feedback
    To encourage participatory communication by making the audience contribute to programmes and issues
    To expand information sources for the audience to access
    To deputise the audience in information gathering and reporting e.g Ireport
    Theoretical Drive to media development in Nigeria
    The main framework that aptly analyse this media development trend is Diffusion of innovation theory. The theory was pioneered in 1943 by Bree and Reil Gross to trace the process by which a new media process is communicated through certain channel over time among members of a social system. The theory also infers the factors and the process of adopting a new technology or an idea.
    However, two concepts are involved in theory – Innovation and Diffusion. Rogers and Shoemaker in Nwodu (2007,p. 263) defined innovation as “an idea, practixe or obje t perceived as new by an individual”. Diffusion on the other hand is defined by Katz in Nwodu (2007,p.264) as “the process of spreading a given new idea or practice over time via specific structure”. Therefore, innovation of diffusion is the strategic delivery of information about a new idea, product or services with a view to convince members of the group to accept, practice, adopt a new idea, products or services.
    The theory posits on the premise on how mainstream media was able to adopt the new media as an extension of their services in order to keep their audience loyal and engaged.
    Another theory is Communication Technology Determinism Theory. The theory was propounded by Marshal Mcluhan in 1962 and he proffered two sub thesis:
    We shape our tools and in turn shape us
    The electronic age is the rise of global village
    Following Mcluhan submissions on the theory, it seems that ICT has impacted tremendously the way information is disseminated. By implication, the theory suggests that the advent the advent of file transfer protocol in various ICT devices has initiated a new way of sending and receiving information. The ICT as a facility has augmented features that can enable sharing of information among individuals in an instance. The new media technologies have also granted the power of information ownership to a larger population unlike in the past when information is owned by the very few, privileged and affluent members of the society.
    The major propositions of the theory are:
    Communication technology is fundamental to the society
    Each technology has a bias to particular communication forms, contents and uses
    The sequence of invention and application of communication technology influence the direction and pace of social change
    Communication revolution lead to social revolution
    Nwafor (2010,p. 17) states that “With the development of telecommunications in Nigerian, the practice of mass communication has greatly improved. The mode of news collection has significantly changed. Reporters can now send their news from far places to their organizations with the cell-phone or with the aid of the briefcase computer; news is therefore simultaneously processed and disseminated with automatic devices”.
    Nwafor (supra) indicated that “although the rate of technological growth in Nigeria is still hampered by
    lack of institutional framework and absence of basic amenities”.
    Reference
    Agba, P. C. (2002). International communication principles, concepts and issues, in Okunna (ed). Teaching mass communication: A multi dimensional approach. Enugu: New Generation books.
    Idemili, S. O. and Sambe, S. A. (2007). Globaliization, ICTs, mass media and public interest, in Nwosu, Oludayo and Soola (Ed.), Communication in global, ICTs and ecosystem perspectives – insights from Nigeria. Enugu: Precision publishers limited
    Nwafor, K. A. (2010). An Aappraisal of the Application of ICTs In the Nigerian Mass Media: A study of NTA and the Guardian newspapers unpublished B.A thesis UNN.

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