Studies in Political Communication
The Role of the Media and Political Tolerance in Ghana: Perceptions of University of Cape Coast Students
Razak Imoro Jaha, Ronald Osei Mensah, Andrews Acquah
The study investigated the perceptions of University of Cape Coast students about the media as a platform to generate political intolerance in Ghana. It specifically sought to know the nature of political intolerance in Ghana, the causes of political intolerance and appropriate ways of mitigating the problem. The use of questionnaires and interviews were employed as major data collection instruments using purposive and convenient sampling techniques to reach respondents. The analysis revealed that political intolerance in Ghana mainly takes the form of threats of violence and character assassination as a result of ethnocentrism exhibited through the media. It was therefore concluded that, the media should play an effective role by recruiting qualified persons to hold political discussions in the media and by applying high journalistic standards in handling issues in the media.
Keywords: Media, Political, Intolerance, Democracy, Development
Correlation Between Newspapers’ Agenda and Public Agenda on National Issues during General Elections 2013 in Pakistan
Mudassar Hussain Shah1, *, Muhammad Yaqoub 2, Saima Kausar 3, Ashok Kumar 4
1Department of Communication Studies, University of S
argodha, Sargodha, Pakistan
2Department of Media and Communication, Government Col
lege University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
3Department of Mass Communication, Queen Mary College,
4College of International Education, Wuhan University
of Technology, Wuhan, China
email@example.com (M. H. Shah) *
International Journal of Journalism and Communication. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2016, pp. 1-10.
This article looks into the position of agenda-setting of national press primarily focusing on national issues of vital importance during the phase of Parliamentary General Elections 2013 in Pakistan. The study finds the correlation between news papers’ agenda and public agenda, examining the influence of national press on public perception on the issue of salience by using triangulation; media agenda on ten national issues of top priority has been explored i.e. US-drone attacks, economic crisis, corruption, Indo-Pak relations, terrorism, energy crisis, Pak-Taliban talks, education, unemployment and health, at the front and back pages of three leading national popular daily Urdu Newspapers of Pakistan. Public agenda is scrutinized by survey research from 600 respondents, to explore what public perceive about these most important issues? The finding of this study reveals a moderate positive correlation between media agenda and public agenda. Hence, a significant positive correlation exists only on four out of ten national issues i.e. terrorism, energy crisis, US-drone attacks, and economic crisis. It is inferred that agenda setting of the press is dominant over plurality of public voice. This study has the strategic and policy implications.
Keywords: Freedom of Press, Media Agenda, Public Agenda, National Press, National Issues, Pakistan
Challenges and Prospects of Electoral Campaigns through Social Media in Ethiopia: Lessons from the 2015 General Election.
Despite electoral campaigns are essential elements of election, opposition political parties in Ethiopia have been challenged due to limited media alternative. In the 2015 general election, some political parties were using social media to conduct campaigns. Hence, this case study aimed to explore the challenges and prospect of using social media. The research utilized a qualitative approach. Blue Party, Ethiopian Democratic Party, Ethiopian Federal Democratic Unity Forum, and Ethiopian People Revolutionary Democratic Front were selected as cases by using intensity case selection method since they were active in using social media. In-depth interview, focus group discussions, and documents were used to collect data. The study used thematic analysis. The study found that the low number of followers at the social media bases of parties, suppressive tendency of the régime, high internet cost and poor internet connectivity, political apathy of users, unwanted interactions of some of the users as well as awareness predicaments as factors that challenge parties’ use of social media as alternative channel of electoral campaign. However, emerging fertile conditions such as optimistic perception of users towards the role of social media, increasing political involvements of youths, and attempts of price revisions on the other hand were found to be impetus to promote parties’ use of these media. Generally, despite there are such challenges, the prospects show that social media are becoming as alternative channels of electoral campaigns in Ethiopia.
Key Words: Challenges; Electoral campaign; Ethiopia; Prospects; Social media, Political Parties
Free Speech as an Indigenous Practice in Pre-Colonial Nigerian Communities: the Igala Abule Night Mask Example
Emmanuel Paul Idakwo, Amin Zaigi Ngharen
Before their contact with the Western world, a number of pre-colonial Nigerian societies had developed practices adjudged by modern pundits as civilised. These included having representative and hierarchical political systems, fair justice system, indigenous technical knowledge (ITK), and effective communication modes. This paper relied on historical research method to contend and establish that freedom of expression was an indigenous Nigerian practice, as epitomised by the activities of Abule Night Mask of the Igala people of North-Central Nigeria. It also simulated the Night Mask’s activities to modern mass media practice. The Night Mask served as a moral check on the excesses of members of the society. Its dramatised execution of this function, using insults and other verbal attacks on erring individuals, added to its entertaining richness to the community. By this, Abule was an organ for not just moral correction and social commentary, but also of information dissemination and entertainment – a simulation of the contemporary mass media. The much celebrated “free speech” may not, after all, be new to the Nigerian society.
Keywords: Abule, Night Mask, Igala, freedom of expression
A Sound Bridge: Listening for the Political in a Digital Age
Aswin Punathambekar, Sriram Mohan
This article examines how catchy sounds (“Why This Kolaveri” [“Why This Murderous Rage”]) can function as sonic cues for political participation. Exploring the sonic dimensions and aural imaginaries at play in mediated public spheres, we show how #Kolaveri became a sound bridge that enabled potent encounters among journalists, politicians, and citizens embroiled in heated debates about corruption in India. Tracing #Kolaveri’s movement across media platforms, we analyze three dimensions of the sonic cue―its availability, performativity, and resonance―that gave it a catalytic charge. Suggesting that sound technologies and practices constitute vital cultural and material infrastructures on which a bridge between the popular and the political can be built, we argue that cases like #Kolaveri disclose new ways of listening for the political and new modes of participation―the expression of sonic citizenship―in a digital era.
Keywords; sound studies, digital culture, social media, networked publics, media convergence, television, digital politics
International Journal of Communication Vol. 11(2017)
Online vs. Telephone Surveys in Political Campaign Research
UAB College of Arts and Sciences, Heritage Hall 305, Edinburg, Texas, USA
The growing emergence of cell phones and caller ID have reduced response rates among telephone polling, causing some concern among those who conduct public opinion polls in politics. That issue has led some to consider online surveys as either an alternative or at least a supplemental technique for gauging political opinions. This study sought to test this concept by conducting two identical surveys – on with live telephone interviews and one with an online survey. The results indicated that the data from the two surveys were not identical. Hillary Clinton scored higher on image ratings with the online survey, and the data for the voter optimism were also different. One possible explanation is that the online surveys are less susceptible to errors caused by a socially desired response pattern. That offers the potential for more accuracy from online surveys.
Telephone; Political surveys; Causing; Online
The Effects of Anti-dengue Media Campaign of Government of Punjab: A Case Study of Gujranwala City
Yasir Waseem I*
Islamia University, Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan
The study “The Effects of Anti-dengue Media Campaign of Government of Punjab: A Case Study of Gujranwala city” conducted to determine the level of awareness of the provincial government anti-dengue campaign on the citizens of the Gujranwala, central Punjab, Pakistan. The study also analyzed to find out the understanding of the residents of Gujranwala about the cause, preventions and identification of dengue disease as well as the effects of the medium on residents. For this study a questionnaire compressing eleven questions was distributed among 300 respondents in district Gujranwala to find out results. The study reveals that the anti-dengue media campaign of the government of Punjab successes due to the use of Television in the area. The finding also exposed that television is the effective source of information for such type of epidemic disease in the Gujranwala particularly and in the country generally. The study supports the theoretical framework of ‘Social learning Theory’ that emphasized on the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors attitudes and emotional reactions of others. Under the said assumption the citizen of the Gujranwala also get awareness and learn from the media about dengue disease, causes, prevention and identification.
Media campaign; Source of information; Social learning theory; Behavior and attitudes; Media effect
The Influence of Interpersonal Communication, Traditional Media, and New Media Sources on Youth’s Voting Behavior; A Study of Pakistan General Election 2013 Campaign
Waseem Iqbal Y* and Ghulam Shabir
The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan
The study “The Influence of Interpersonal Communication, Traditional Media, and New Media Sources on Youth’s Voting Behavior; A Study of Pakistan General Election 2013 Campaign “conducted to determine the influence of interpersonal communication such as ( Parents, Siblings, friend , religious leader ,celebrities teachers and significant other that which source is more significant in shaping voting behavior of Pakistani youth. Along with interpersonal sources research also found which form of media was effectively play part in voting decision of youth in 2013 general election. This study compares both interpersonal as well as media source to find out which is most effective while election campaign and shaping voting decision of youth. For this study survey method was used, in which self-reported questionnaire compressing forty two questions was distributed among 1000 respondents in public sectors universities of Punjab and Islamabad to find out results. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) was used for data analysis and statistical testing of the variables. Excel and word document software’s were also used for composing, graphics, tables and charts. The results proved that Parents are most significant predictor of voting behavior of youth, but there level of significance gradually decreasing as compare to prior studies, because of change in source of information of youth. This study exposed that television is still primary source of information but youth’s source of political information in transition phase that they are shifting their information sources form traditional media (newspaper, radio and television) to new media such as internet especially youth relay of social media. The study supports the theoretical framework of ‘cultivation, agenda setting, dependence theory, uses and gratification and role of interpersonal discussion’ that emphasized on the importance of interpersonal discussion and importance of mass media in shaping behaviors attitudes and emotional reactions of youth.
Interpersonal communication; Traditional media; New media; Election campaign; Voting behaviour; General election 2013
Online Democracy: A Content Analysis of Facebook Pages of 2016 Philippine Presidential Candidates
Jayson Troy Bajar*
Central Philippine University, Half Moon Dr Lopez, Iloilo City, 5000 Iloilo, Philippines
This study was conducted to determine the extent of utilization by which Filipino politicians use social media to further a political agenda. A combination of quantitative (conceptual) and qualitative (relational) content analysis were used to examine the Facebook posts of five presidential candidates retrieved in a month period prior to May 2016 elections. Results showed that, ‘text and photo’ is the most dominant medium used by politicians. This study suggests that the manner by which content is presented bears significance in the likelihood of audience to interact in the post. The same inference is consistent with the average word count. Results showed that, as politicians use more words in their posts, it is likely that they will have lesser interactions. In the frequency of updates, it was observed that most of the politicians increased posting updates as the election was nearing. This led to the assumption that the virtual presence of politicians is both beneficial to them and the supporters. The former contributes to the popularity of the politician while the latter contributes in the dissemination of political information. In the degree of interaction, results showed that as politicians load more content, the lesser interactions they will get. For the most dominant theme used, it turned out those political advertisements ranked highest, comprising a third of all posts, accompanied by posts on self-descriptions. Consistent with other studies, results showed that even in social media, Filipino politicians are more inclined to promote themselves as ‘persons’ and ‘candidates’ rather than as leaders with platforms and convictions. Lastly, it was observed that politicians generally project information beneficial to them and hence tend to avoid those that may be considered their weak points. This finding illustrates that the social media empowers politicians to set the public agenda. Fundamentally, the findings showed that, the extent of utilization does not necessarily guarantee the politician’s political success.
Facebook research; Filipino politicians; May 2016 elections; Online electioneering